Q20. WHICH COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD PRODUCE NATURAL GAS? DISCUSS.
WRITE A NOTE ON THE WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL GAS.
The details of natural gas producing countries is given as under:
1. RUSSIAN FEDERATION:
Russian Federation owns highest gas reserves amongst all the countries of the world. According to estimation, these reserves consist of 1700 trillion cubic meters which comes to 30 per cent of total world reserves. The gas fields are generally near to the oil wells and this is the reason that gas is obtained also from some of the oil wells. Approximately, two third of the total gas in Russian Federation is obtained from Western Siberian Tyumen Province. Natural gas is the most important source of income of Russian Federation though exports to Eastern and Western European countries.
2. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
The natural gas reserves in United States of America have been estimated at 177.4 trillion sqr. due to which she occupies 6th. position at world level. The big gas reserves are located here in Texas, Mexico Valley of Louisiana, New Mexico,Wyoming field and in Prudhoe at the northern slope of Alaska. Natural gas began to be explored on commercial basis in 1820.America, in this way, is right to claim the pioneer of gas exploration.America, up to 1960, used to be the single biggest gas consuming (85 per cent of the world reserves) country of the world. America today, is also the biggest gas producing country of the world. Twenty seven states are provided with the natural gas through pipe lines in America to be used in Thermal power projects and Petro-chemical units.
Canada comes at number 3 for the production of natural gas in the world. Most of the gas reserves in Canada are concentrated in Alberta. Canada exports the large quantity of her gas to United States of America. Since natural gas is the cheapest source of fuel therefore, the consumption of gas is also very high. The arrangements are being made for supplying the natural gas in the tar situated areas of the country through pipe lines. Canada possesses large stock of surplus gas.
Commercial use of natural gas began in Britain in 1967. Natural gas was first discovered in the cost of Eastern England and after that, natural gas production is constantly increasing. Britain depends on natural gas for 16 per cent of total electricity produced in the country. The gas reserves are estimated here worth 26.7 trillion sqr. ft.
The position of Nigeria for the production of natural gas is 5th. at the world level and she at number one in Africa. Since Algeria produce natural gas much more than the requirements, she is also a big exporter of natural gas. Natural gas is concentrated here in three regions; Hassi RMel, Hassi Massaoud and Edjile.
Indonesia is also an important gas producing country where the gas reserves have been estimated at 72.3 trillion sqr. ft. The most important gas producing region here is Palembang district of Sumatra island. Apart from it. natural gas is also produced in Borneo Island,Indonesia exports natural gas in the large quantity to Japan and other neighbor countries.
Uzbekistan owns large natural gas reserves. According to an estimation the gas reserves of Uzbekistan consist of 1900 billion sqr. meters. The maximum amount of gas is in the Bukhara Khiva Depressior As a member of Common Wealth of Independent States, the major amount of gas is consumed locally nevertheless, a small quantity of gas is exported also.
Iran, no doubt, is lucky in connection with the natural gas where the gas reserves have been estimated at 812.3 trillion sqr. ft. Sixteen per cent of the total world reserves of gas are concentrated in Iran. Iran, after Russia, is the biggest gas producing country of the world. Iran, after coping with her local need of gas, exports large amount of gas to Japan and India. The natural gas reserves of Iran are found in the oil fields therefore, the gas reserves are concentrated in Masjid-e-Suleman, Naft-Shah, Lali, Agha Jan and Bahregan.
9. SAUDI ARABIA:
Saudi Arabia has great reserves of natural gas. According to an estimation they consist of 213.3 trillion sqr. ft. These of gas reserves are concentrated in the Western part of Saudi Arabia which also the oil field. Gas is also available in Persian Gulf. Natural gas is used in Saudi Arabia for the production of Thermal electricity, in fertilizer and cement factories and in Chemical industry.
China has recently been emerged as an important energy producing and consuming country and like coal, petrol and electricity sectors, substantial development has also been taken place in the sector of natural gas. The natural gas reserves have been estimated here at 48.3 trillion sqr. ft. The natural gas reserves here are also in the oil fields including Caramel and Lengue in Sinkiang, Taching in Hailung Kiang and in the depth of Mongolia. As the requirements of energy, with the development in China, is also increasing, efforts are being made for the development of gas sector.
Apart from the countries cited above, other important natural gas producing countries include Turkemanistan, Pakistan, Germany, Qatar, Venezuela, Austria, Argentina, Mexico, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Netherlands and Norway.