Q9. DISCUSS THE WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF HYDRO ELECTRICITY.
EXPLAIN THE POSITION OF HYDRO ELECTRICITY PRODUCING COUNTRIES AT THE WORLD LEVEL.
Twenty per cent of the total electricity produced by various sources, is comprises of hydro electricity. The distribution of hydro electricity in the different countries of the world is quite uneven because not only the physical and natural conditions but the economic conditions are also very different in all the countries of the world. It can briefly be concluded that only those countries are ahead in this behalf which are industrially and financially developed and prosperous. Because the condition for the development of hydro electricity are fulfilled in these countries like developed technology, low cost of production, abundance of capital etc.
Water reservoirs are concentrated in the tropical countries and so 60 per cent capability to produce hydro electricity is also concentrated in these countries. This reality can be accepted by the fact that water power is mainly concentrated in continent of Africa only. After Africa, Asia, North America, Europe and South America possess water power in the same order.
The world distribution of hydro electricity can be summarized as under:
Asia, although possess 23 per cent of world water power but only 13.7 million KWH (Kilowatts-hours) which is 13.6 per cent at the world level. China, Japan, India, Turkey, Pakistan and Korea have played crucial role in converting their water power into energy.
2. SOUTH AMERICA:
The vast capacity of producing hydro electricity in South America depends on the water reservoirs of plateaus of Brazil and Andes. As the rapid industrial development has taken place in Western Europe and petrol is almost is not available here therefore, efforts have been made for the production of hydel power. This is the reason that 51 per cent of the capacity of this area has been used. The special efforts have been made on the production and promotion of hydro electricity in Norway,France,Sweden,Italy,Australia and Spain because the other sources of energy are scarce here.
There is an acute shortage of water in Australia for producing hydro electricity therefore,Australia is not important at world level for the production of hydro electricity.
4. NORTH AMERICA:
The water reservoirs in continent of North America, Canada and United States of America at number 1 and 3 at global level. In the United States of America, adjacent to the border of Canada, there are vast water resources and they are being utilized fully.
When the total water power of the world is analyzed, it is revealed that whosesoever the resources for the production of hydro electricity were available, they have almost been fully used. In some of the countries the attention has already focused on the large hydro electricity producing projects like Common Wealth of Independent States, United States of America,Canada and Norway. Where as small projects have been concentrated in Japan, China which produces hydro electricity to cope with the local needs of energy.
Water power has been used at maximum in the European countries in the European countries including Norway, Switzerland, Canada and New Zealand.