Q8. HIGHLIGHT THE CAUSES DUE TO WHICH THE WORLD POPULATION IS THINKS IN SOME REGIONS WHILE THICK IN OTHER REGIONS.
WHICH FACTORS PLAY IMPORTANT AND DECISIVE ROLE IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION? EXPLAIN.
WHY IS THE DENSITY OF POPULATION DIFFERENT IN THE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD? STATE THE REASONS OF THIS DISPARITY.
‘World Distribution’ of population means, at a particular place, in what proportion of the world population, how many number of persons live while ‘Density of Population refers to the distance lying amongst the people or how near are they to one another ? The factors which determine the nature of distribution of population the same are considered for density of population. The determinants of distribution or the density may he physical as well as human. The (actors may be ‘positive’ (which motivate the people to be settled at a particular place) and ‘negative’ also (which discourage the people to live at a particular place.
Physical or natural factors, before the industrial revolution, were more important than those at human because the occupation of the most of the people was agriculture which depends on natural factors. But after the Industrial Revolution, human factors assumed more importance for determining the pattern of distribution or the density of population. Even if the natural factors are not favourable, the human factor can resolve this problem. For instance, if the land or weather or climate is riot suitable for cultivation, the food problem has been solved through developing the means of transport by importing the Food grains and stuff from other countries. Obviously, at very difficult and unfavorable places the settlement of people has become possible like deserts of Libya or areas of Tundra in Alaska. Nevertheless at the places where climate or weather is severe (hot or cold) the population is almost nil.
FACTORS OF DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION:
Here, we mention the factors which play the crucial and decisive role in the distribution or the density of population at global level:
Relief means level of land, whether it a high or low or the angle of slope or the director: of land. Construction of roads and houses is easy on the leveled ground. Agriculture can also he carried easily on the leveled land because if the angle of slope of the land is more than 10 degree. Cultivation would become next to carry on such a land. Although teepness of the slope of the land can be reduced by eroding but this process would be highly expensive. This is the reason that the plain areas are densely populated and the population is thin in the mountainous regions. The population is thick in some of the areas in South of Germany of (Europe).Nether land sand Belgium because the land is leveled or steepness of slopes is less here. The area of Alp in the same region is thinly populated because this area is mountainous and the weather s also very severe. As the Level of land rises, the weather grows more severe an unbearable due to which population also becomes thin. The population on the Northern slope of Alp is thin but it is thick on the Southern slope. The grazing fields are found on the Southern slope because the sun rays are cast for longer time on Southern slope as compared on the Northern slop. These sun rays make the weather moderate and so grass is grown on Southern slopes.
2. NATURAL VEGETATION:
Cleaning the forests is a problem therefore; there was a period when the jungles wore the hurdle for population. The grass fields with less vegetation were attractive for the farmers for living. For instance, the ancient cultivators used to prefer to live on the high lands because of less forestry but now the low lands, cleaning them from the forests, are brought under cultivation. This is the reason that population has also increase on low lands. The natural vegetation in the South-East Asia is composed of Monsoon Forests but the population is thick where the forests have been cleaned and have been made worth cultivating. The river delta and the flood plains are highly suitable for the rice cultivation. This is the reason that population is thick here. Due to natural vegetation, despite the unfavorable physical factors, population is thick in Jara and Vietnam due to rice cultivation. Contrary to it, unfavorable physical factors discourage the population to concentrate in Amazon and Congo basins.
Since agriculture depends on climate, it plays decisive role in the distribution of population. The people do not settle in the regions of severe climate; hot or cold. The Sahara Desert and the Northern Alaska are the glaring example in this behalf where the population is almost nil because these regions are either extremely hot or very cold. Agriculture is not possible here. Crops have very short time to grow while seed can’t even germinate in the sand of Sahara. Consequently, cultivation is not possible iii both these regions. There is no population in the region of Amazon because the land is damp and marshy here. Moreover, the heavy rains erode the upper fertile layer of the soil and the moisture causes human and plant diseases. Population is thick in Java (South-East Asia) because the climate is moist and warm. North-West Europe is suitable for thick population because agricultural activities can be carried here easily. Britain and France are self sufficient in food grins. The Ganges Delta is also thickly populated because two crops can be grown in one year.
4. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT:
In the modern times, human and economic factors play more important rote than those of physical and natural factors. The people feel the industrial regions more attractive (or employment and living standard. The population, due to this reason, began to shift in Britain in 18th. century. The industrial revolution introduced machines in the agricultural sector. The population, during the period of industrial revolution, began to concentrate in Manchester and Leads in Britain. The same situation is found in all the developed and industrial countries of the world. Now, the process of industrialization and urbanization has also begun in the less developed countries where population is being concentrated. When the industrialization began, the means of transport also developed to link raw materials producing rural areas with urban areas. The cities and towns come into being along the transport routes. This is the reason that the population is very thick near the harbours of Rotradam, Liverpool and New York.
5. NATURAL RESOURCES:
Coal and other natural resources have played very important role concentrating the population at certain places.
The population increase fast specially in Western Europe and Northern andSouth Americaduring 19th. century due to the coal mines here. The furnaces and boilers were using coal as fuel therefore, the factories settled near the coal mines because the heavy source of fuel like coal was highly expensive to carry from the far situated mines
The Ruhr mines of could played the key role in the concentration of steel and engineering factories in Germany during 19th. century. The labour population also increased in the vicinity of the factories. Although steam is not used now as the source of energy but the same region is the industrial center. The industrial and population concentration would continue hero so long any other revolutionary and economic factor intervenes.
6. RIVERS AND SUPPLY OF WATER:
The rivers played very important role in the distribution and density of population in the early days because of invention of water means of transport. The Valleys of Rahin in the Western Europe,Lower Seni and Themes are thickly populated because the rivers have made human migration from to other place easily. The availability for water in the deserts have solve the problem of drinking and irrigation water River Nile in Egypt and River Tigris in Iraq are the only source of drinking and irrigation water and this the reason that the agricultural activities have been concentrated along the banks of these rivers with thick population.
The areas which depend on agriculture, fertility of soils plays decisive role in the concentration of population here. The areas where floods are routine, are highly suitable for cultivation because the flood water brings and spread the fertile layer of soil on the ground. Population also concentrates in such areas. For instance, the Ganges Delta Nile Valley, and the Flood plains of East China are capable to accept highest population at global level. Fertile volcanic soil is also highly fertile for cultivation and the reason that the population is very thick in Java because the volcanic fertile soil has made agriculture easy here.