Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.



The success of communication depends also upon the fact that how the communicators value and think about themselves and what is their self-image or self-concept. And how they value and think of others. To understand the self concept and self perception of the human an analytical theory has been developed which is known as Transactional Analysis (TA). This theory has been advanced by Eric Bern and refined by Tom Harris. It explains what happens when two persons transact or interact. The TA theory is the human behavior analysis.

The theory suggests that the foundation of human behavior is laid in his childhood. Every person’s behavior can be divided into three kinds

1. The Child

2. The Parent

3. The Adult


1. The Child

The Child type of behavior is the result of experiences, frustrations, helplessness, weakness, joy, curiosity, imagination, and success or failure in the period of childhood. The Child behavior is the ‘felt concept of life’.


The Child of a person can be divided into two kinds:

(i) Free Child: He is independent, self-originated, impulsive, and tree from anxiety. His behavior is mature.

(ii) Hurt Child: He is melancholic, depressed, arid frustrated. His behavior is immature with a sense of insecurity.


2. The Parent

The Parent type of behavior is the reflection of that of a person’s father, mother alders, and elders toward himself in his childhood. In his early part of life, the child learns that the elders and big people are always right because they are powerful. The parent aspect of behavior is known as “taught concept of life.”


The parent type people may be of two kinds:

(i). Critical parent: The manager of this nature is dictating, rigid, and management oriented.

(ii). Nurturing parent: This type of manager is cooperative, considerate, encouraging, flexible, and inviting participation.


3. The Adult

This behavior is reflected by one’s confidence and mature outlook. It is the thought concept of life’. Such people defend their actions by reasons rather than emotions.

TA also suggests some other characteristics of the human in addition to the above three:


1. Stroke :

These are the rewards everybody is running after, as praise, compliments, or smiles which are positive strokes. Negative strokes include evasion, criticism, taunt, or reprimand.


2. Games :

These are little tricks that are used to get strokes. We mold our behavior and act in such ways as to get certain strokes. Games reinforce the psychological positions, and help avoid or maintain friendship or relation. People play games when they feel bored and want to fill up time.


3. Scripts

These are the roles we adopt. They encourage games we want to play. During the childhood children play the roles of the persons that they want to be in the future. Some play the king) the brave, or the good, while others play the villian, or the bad.

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