Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.



The word authority stems from author that means originator. The originator is always sure to know about his creation.

According to Robert Fulmer “authority refers to emergent organizations in which it as agreed that a person would be boss because of powers or preeminence.” However it has been established that two persons with the same authority and same number of subordinates wilt produce different results just because of difference in influence, power, and prowess. Hence authority enriched by power influence, personal competence and skill enable a manager to produce better results. It is a famous saying “the boss may not always he right but is always the boss”.


The Manager must delegate duties because he cannot perform them all alone. He assigns responsibility although final responsibility must rest with him. Job description clarifies the job according of which his subordinates must perform the task. Delegating duties is in fact delegating authority which is the right to do a specified job. Responsibility, on the other hand may be considered as the obligation to discharge duties property.


In the process of organizing work is divided and authority delegated. These acts create organization which in return produces management.


Definitions of Authority

Authority is the right to do or get things done by others. It empowers a worker to act in a specified manner or in accordance with the job description. According to WEIHRICH, authority is the power in a position in organization.


Authority must be delegated because the manager cannot perform all the work alone. Its delegation shows the trust of the manager in his subordinates which grows from their competence, judgment and his acceptance of mistakes likely to be committed unconsciously by them.

Authority may be centralized or decentralized.


Centralized Authority

When most of the authority is retained by the manager, it refers to centralization. The manager cannot centralize a hundred percent authority because it ill render all employees surplus, kind he ill have to perform all work alone including non-managerial and chore work. Consequently, the whole structure of the organization will collapse. Centralized authority calls for maximum work of the organization to be performed by one or a few persons and consequently specialization ceases to exist.


Decentralized Authority

On the other hand, decentralization of authority refers to a hundred percent delegation rendering the manager himself extra. He will lose his place in the organization that will become inoperative and come to a standstill. Hence a hundred percent authority cannot he delegated. Decentralization to optimum level produces good results. It creates specialization. The delegate is not overburdened and the efficiency of the enterprise improves.


The manager however must control his subordinates with delegated authority.

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