I. THE CONTENT THEORIES
1. Classical Theory (Frederick Taylor)
Frederick Taylor, an American, is popularly known as lather of scientific management. He started his career as a machine operation and gradually succeeded to the highest position of the onlet executive of the same company. During his tenure of service in the company he learned the weaknesses of workers and management. He observed that the management and the workers have turned into rival groups adversely affecting the productivity. Experienced by such conditions he developed the theory of scientific management by which he meant mental revolution on the part of management and workers. Both the groups should cease to be rival and should turn into friendly groups thereby increasing the productivity.
According toTaylormoney is the strongest motivator. People try to get that job which offers more money (salary and allowances). But many of the psychologists, sociologists and management scientist do not agree withTaylor. They say that money is not everything. Whole other theorists agreeing withTaylorsay that every person has its price and value.
Although there are people who find themselves above money power, money is the main motivator for low income groups. For high income groups money is less important than status, self respect and facilities like car, luxury house, telephones, private secretary, separate cubicles, and a name plate outside their office.
Taylordecided that a clear distinction should be drawn between hard workers and dull workers. The hard worker should be paid more then others or he will get discouraged and lose his efficiency. By time and motion study he developed standard time and work. Those who accomplish this standard work in standard time should be paid bonus. Those who fail in it, should be paid at a lower rate. For this purpose he developed “Wage differential Plan”. But the classical theory fails to specify other motivating factors.
2. Need or Humanistic Theory (Maslow)
Abraham Maslow became publicly known when his article first published in a monthly magazine Psychology Review in July 1943. His article was on the theory of human motivation. He described five human needs which a human wants satisfied in order of importance. According to him satisfaction of one need leads to the satisfaction of the other more sophisticated need. He describes the hierarchy of the needs as follows.
1. Basic Needs:
These include food, shelter, water, clothing, medicine, air etc.
2. Safety needs
Security of life, property, and job. Low income groups busy themselves in satisfying these first two needs through their lives.
3. Social needs
Love, association, belongingness. This need arises subsequent to the satisfaction of the first two.
4 Self-esteem needs
This is the need for sell-respect. It is accomplished by owning a car, jewels, big house, big title of the job. This higher level of need is harder to satisfy, and only a few persons are able to satisfy this need.
It lies at the highest rung of the ladder of needs. It is most difficult to satisfy. Here the person is mare concerned with the welfare of others rather than himself. He wants to perform some feat.
Detailed explanation of the above hierarchy of needs is given in humanistic approach in the previous chapter 11. This theory guides managers in dealing with their subordinates.
3. Need Theory (DT. Hall & K.E. Nougaim)
In 1957, D.T. Hall and K.E. Nougaim started a five year study of young managers of American Telephone and Telegraph and made the following suggestions for those managers whose subordinates are managers
1. Being in a Company aLL managers’ need for achievement and esteem increases with the passage of time.
2. Efficient and successful managers will get the reward in the form of promotion, pay increase, and other benefits and perks.
3. Efficient managers succeed in getting increased managerial responsibility. As such in five years their achievement and esteem satisfaction is greater than those managers and compeers who are left behind.
4. As a result of great satisfaction of achievement and esteem needs such managers become more involved in their jobs.
5. Their greater job involvement brings them further growth, promotion, and more important responsibilities in an upward series.
4. Two-factor Theory (F. Herzberg)
Frederick Herzberg was professor of psychology atCaseWestern ReserveUniversity.USA. He conducted a of experiments with two hundred engineers and accountants to reveal the mystery of motivation. He asked them to describe those moments that especially were either happy or unhappy ones. He inferred two following important factors which he characterizes as
1. Maintenance Factors
2. Motivational Factors
Herzberg’s study discovered the following maintenance factors which are minimum requirements of a job. Without the satisfaction of these factors no employee will be willing to work.
1. Company management and policy.
2 Technical’ supervision
3 Interpersonal relations with supervisor
4: Interpersonal relations with compeers
5. Interpersonal relations with subordinates
7. Job security
8. Personal betterment
9. Working conditions
Herzberg discovered six motivational factors. Incidentally, these factors match highest level need as described by Maslow
4. The job itself
5 The possibility of promotion
Herzberg emphasizes independence and decentralization of authority to properly and efficiently perform the job. According to him independence and authority to make decisions is a good navigator.
Herzberg’s theory is much like Maslow’s in that the farmer’s maintenance factors lie in the first rungs of the Maslow’s ladder of needs, and the motivational factor fit into the top level of needs.
On the pattern of Herzberg, M. Scott Myers also conducted a study and summarized three questions that every manager should use to motivate his subordinates.
1. What motivates employees to work effectively? This question refers to a challenging job which entails a sense of accomplishment, responsibility, growth, advancement, enjoyment, and recognition.
2. What dissatisfies workers? Dissatisfiers may be work, rules and regulations, working conditions, titles, seniority rights, wages, and fringe benefits.
3. When do the workers become dissatisfied? It is the occasions when advantageous conditions for growth, achievement, and recognition no longer prevail.
5. Human Relation Theory (Rensis Likert)
Rensis Likert is one of the modern management experts. He advocates human-centered management. He goes that far that the management should not curtail manpower during recession.
Rensis Liken discards first two levels of needs of the need theory namely (1) physiological needs and, (2) Safety needs. He focuses his attention on the top three needs, namely, social needs, ego needs, and self-fulfillment needs. He says that money and security are not motivators in themselves rather they are fools of motivator. Likerts theory puts its emphasis on managers rather than employees. Managers should use such motivators as economic welfare, security factors, ego motives, and desire to be innovative, creative, and desire to use initiative.