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THE CAUSES WHICH MAKE THE SOIL OF DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN DIFFERENT

Q6. HIGHLIGHT THE CAUSES WHICH MAKE THE SOIL OF DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN DIFFERENT.
OR
HOW MANY TYPES OF SOIL ARE FOUND IN PAKISTAN? DISCUSS.
OR
DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL OF DIFFERENT REGIONS OF PAKISTAN AND ALSO MENTION THEIR CONSTITUENTS.

ANSWER:
Soil of different regions of Pakistan can be classified into 4 types as under:

1. DESERT SOIL:
There are 4 deserts namely Thar, That, Chulistan and central Baluchistan deserts. The soil of these regions is termed as ‘Regosolar’. Deserts of Chulistan and Thar are the biggest deserts. The combined area of both these deserts is 450 miles long and 50 mile wide.

The colour of the soil of these deserts is bluish brown. The mineral components are excessively mixed in this soil. A grayish thick layer of sand is found on the plain lying between River Indus and River Jehlurn. The ancient rivers have been filled with the soil and mud while vegetation is scarce in the region of Kharan. This is the reason that the pace of formation of soil here is slow.

2. GLACIER SOIL:
Glacier soil is riot suitable for the vegetation at all. This soil is found at the height of 12,500 ft. in Chitral.

3. GRAY BROWN SOIL:


Since the highest proportion of moisture is found in Gray brown soil due to which organic elements are excessively found in this sod. This soil is found in Northern Province of Frontier and the coniferous forests of the mountains of Murree. This soil is highly fertile.

4. ALLUVIAL SOIL:
The Indus Valley plains can be divided into two kinds:
First: Upper Indus Plain and,
Second: Lower Indus Plain

In other words, the total soil of Sindh has been composed of the soil brought by River Indus and its tributaries. The average of rains in Lower Indus Plain, as compared to Upper Indus plain, is low due to which the soil Lower Indus Plain is soft and dry. Since the vegetation depends on moisture and as the rain fall is low here therefore, there is shortage of vegetation and organic elements here. The dominant part of Sindh has been the victim of salinity and the fertility of soil is decreasing steadily. The soil of Valley of Sindh is saline. At some places, the Alluvial Soil is sandy but at other place it is called Domat’. The soil of Valley of Sindh can further be divided into the following kinds:

a. DALTAIC SOIL:
Daltaic Soil is formed with combination of Alluvial Soil and the soil brought by sea tidings. It is water logged soil in which grass is not grown. This soil can be used for the rice cultivation if sufficient supply of water is guaranteed. The entire soil is water logged and the soil of one third of this region is ‘Domat’.

b. KHADDAR SOIL:
When floods come in the rivers, they bring soil with them which spreads over the plains. This soil is termed as ‘Khaddar Soil’. This soil contains high proportion of salt and low proportion of organic elements.

c. BANGAR SOIL:
This soil is found in the plains in the form of thick layer. According to the formation point of view, it is better in average. Although there is shortage of organic element in Banger Soil but if it is used with Green, Cow dung and Chemical fertilizers, better agricultural results can be achieved. Most of the plains of Valley of Sindh is covered with the same soil. Similarly, the soil of the plains of Punjab, Bannu, Mardan, Karachi and Peshawar is Bhangar.

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