Q1. EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PAKISTAN AND AGRICULTURE.
GIVE THE INTRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURE IN PAKISTAN.
Approximately 68 per cent of the total population ofPakistandirectly resides in the rural area which, directly or indirectly, is related to agricultural activities. Agricultural activities are carried on subsistence basis inPakistan. In other words, most of the farmers inPakistanproduce only that much so that they could satisfy the domestic food requirements.
The present situation is that the agricultural sector of Pakistanis the biggest sector in the economy of Pakistan. The agricultural sector, providing employment to half of the population of the country, contribute 25 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product and also contribute to the foreign earnings substantially, lithe existing agricultural situation is compared with that of 1947, a major change has taken place. In 1947, agriculture was contribution was 53 per cent to GNP which has now been decreased to the extent of 25 percent. Reduction in the contribution of agriculture to the national income indicates that the growth rate of agricultural sector, as compared to other sectors of the economy, has gone down substantially. This hopeless situation can be realized by the fact that the average growth rate of agricultural sector of Pakistan, for the last 50 years, has been stuck up at 3.4 per cent or somewhere near to it.
Approximately half century back, agricultural sector in Pakistan was treated as backward sector which was a source to provide employment to the workers who used not be absorbed by the industrial sector. During Eighties the importance of agricultural sector was realized in Pakistan and was given due attention. The experts of economics of development emphasized to created balance between industry and agriculture and agriculture enjoyed more attention during Seventy’s and Eighties in the process and efforts for development. During the last decade the growth rate of agricultural sector stayed at 4.5 per cent per annum. The cause of up and down in the growth rate had been weather conditions, attacks of insects and pests, shortage of irrigate water, adulterated insecticides and pesticides and neglecting the development issues pertaining to sub-sectors of agriculture.
The total areas of Pakistan Is 80 mullion hectors (about 79.1 million hectors) out of which about 1.99 million hectors Is under cultivation. The land under cultivation in Punjab is 12.31 million hectors 5.70 million hectors in Province of Sindh, 1.8 million hectors In NWFP while 2.13 million hectors in Baluchistan. There is an area of 9.13 million hectors which can be cultivated but due to the reasons, It Is lying un-utilized. The forests and vegetation Is on 3.66 million hectors and the remainder areas of the country is covered by deserts and mountains or they can’t be cultivated. The key products obtained from agricultural sectors include wheat, rice, maize, cotton and sugar can.
The dominant part of the industries in Pakistan get their raw materials from the agricultural sector of the country like textile, sugar, rice husking, flour mills, vegetable ghee, vegetable oil, cigarettes etc. The economy of Pakistan in the present industrial age is still an Agrarian Economy.
Pakistan Is located in Semi-Tropical Zone where climate is arid and dry therefore, both these tow factors are the major hurdle in the development and promotion of agricultural sector. Agriculture in Pakistan is successful in the regions where irrigation water is available either through canals system or tube wells. An area of 21.99 million hectors is under cultivation in Pakistan out of Which 18.09 (82.3 per cent) is irrigated and 17.7 per cent is un-irrigated (depending directly on natural rain) land. Out total irrigated (having canals irrigation system) area of Pakistan, 13.93 million hectors land is in Punjab, 2.52 million hectors in Sindh, 0.92 million hectors in NWFP and 0.80 million hectors is in Baluchistan.