Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.



The quality of the report depends on the accomplishment of completeness, conciseness, concreteness, conviction, objectivity, clarity, consideration, courtesy, confidence, and conversational tone. Such qualities are explained below:



To achieve clarity following points are important:


1.         Include definitions of technical words.

2.         Make proper headings, divisions, subdivisions of the report.

3.         Prepare vivid organizational and numeral plans

4.         Use simple and standard words and properly sized paragraphs.

5.         Use visual aids such as charts, graphs, pictures, tables.

6.         Use transitional words to pink sentences. Transitional words include again firstly lastly however, at the same time, still yet and, thus and other conjunctions.


Concreteness, Conviction, Objectivity

The following guidelines will help you accomplish concreteness, conviction, and objectivity:

1.         Use concrete norms whenever possible. Use active rather than passive

2.         Specific words and data have objectivity. To say “in seven days” is better than “as soon as possible”

3.         Mention the sources of data from where they have been gathered. Sources determine the validity and conviction.

4.         Emphasize on rationality rather than emotionality.

5.         Be objective and concrete ill your statements, quotations, and abstracting.

6.         Don’t be biased. Don’t introduce personal feelings into the data.


Completeness and Conciseness

Completeness and conciseness depend on the following:

1.         Present all needed information. Cover all the questions asked. The report should include introduction, text, and terminal section.

2.         Avoid wordy expressions and trite words,

3.         Use laconic words and phrases.

4.         Cover the answers to what, when, who, why, where, and how to make the report complete.



Considerations and Courtesy

For achieving considerations and courtesy, follow the points given below:

1.         Tailor makes your report to the type of the reader.

2.         Make your research, analysis, interpretation, organization, and presentation fair, correct, and unbiased.

3.         Organize the text of the report according to the requirement of the reader.

4.         Explain disagreeable material tactfully and courteously.

5.         Tone and style of writing should be rational and logical,

6.         Make your report readable and interesting. This can be achieved by using proper headings, paragraphing, graphs, charts, and pictures.

7.         Explain both the favorable and unfavorable points

8.         Avoid your personal opinions unless you are asked to do so.




1.         Take care of spelling, grammar, syntax, diction. Sources of data should be reliable. The data collected should be correct and objective

2.         Make a clear distinction between facts, opinions, and inferences.

3.         Design conclusions correctly and without exaggeration.

4.         Layout of the report should be logical and attractive.

5.         Terminal section should have only that material which has been discussed in the report previously.


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