Q16. WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY WATER LOGGING AND SALINITY? EXPLAIN WITH REFERENCE TO PAKISTAN.
WHAT IS MEANT BY PROBLEM OF WATER LOGGING AND SALINITY? DISCUSS.
The nature of the problem of Water Logging and Salinity in Pakistan can be stated as under:
a. PROBLEM OF WATER LOGGING:
If the underground water level is at 1.5 meters or less, it would not allow the plants or trees to survive. The soil, mixing with water, is converted into mud. The Water Logging Problem has been created in Punjab due to the canal irrigation system there.
b. PROBLEM OF SALINITY:
If salt, elements of Alkali, Magnesium or the Sodium Chloride are mixed in soil, it looses its fertility and no vegetation can grow. Converting the soil into saline soil is the gravest and serious problem of agricultural sector in arid and semi-arid areas of Pakistan.
The salt and sodium does not go deep under the surface due to lack of rain sand these salts damages the roots of trees, plants and vegetation. In the dry regions, due to low rainfall and high temperature, the moisture evaporates and the proportion of salts increases in the soil which is poison for vegetation. The land becomes hard in the form of hard and dry layer over layers which also do not allow the salt to go in deep. Consequently, the problem of salinity becomes graver. If the precautionary measures, with the big irrigation projects, are not adopted and planning is also defective, the proportion of soil in the soil would continue to increase.
As a result of all these reasons, nothing can be cultivated on the saline land. History reveals that many ancient civilizations have been abandoned in Sindh due to the problem of salinity. The intensity of this problem at the global level is that out the 13 billion hectares of land available for cultivation, one billion hectares of land has been the victim of salinity problem.