Preparation for or steps in oral communications
The preparation for oral communication has the following steps:
1. Determine the purpose
2. Analyze the audience and the situation
3. Choose the idea to include in the message
4. Collect and interpret data
5. Organize the data
6. Plan visual aids
7. Rehearse the talk
Determine the purpose
Before speaking or making an oral presentation, it is necessary to determine the purpose. It determines what to say and how to say.
The purpose may be:
1. You are merely informing.
2. You are teaching.
3. You are trying to secure belief or action.
4. You want to convince.
5. You are simply trying to entertain.
6. You are answering to blame or clarifying our position.
7. You are blaming the audience.
8. You want to motivate, guide, and supervise.
Analyze the audience and the situation
The following information about the audience aids us in constructing the method and style of speaking;
1. Name and sex of the audience
5. Other qualifications
6. His or their place in the organization
7. His or their importance, authority, and responsibility in the organization
8. His or their attitude, knowledge of the problem
9. His or their views, beliefs, viewpoints, etc. in general.
The above data wilt help you tailor and trim your message.
Organize the data
Organize and arrange the data as follows:
2. Text (explanation and discussion)
3. Conclusion, suggestion, remedial steps, advice, etc.
Tell them what you are going to tell them. Then tell them. Tell them what you have told them
Plans visual aids
At appropriate times the display of meaningful visual aids help the audience to understand the message clearly. Common devices for display are chalk boards, flip sheets, cards and posters, and projectors and VCRs. Through these aids we may exhibit charts, tables, pictures, letters, graphs, diagrams, etc.
Rehearse the talk
The audience judges the speaker by his attitude, bodily action, and tone of voice syntax, speech content, and style. Bodily action — posture, movement, gestures, and facial expressions — and tone must be natural rather than aggressive or offensive. Proper pause should be given when speaking. You must know your opening sentence word for word. You must be sure that you can deliver the message within the time limit.
To accomplish the above purpose it is suggested to rehearse the speech in a physical and psychological atmosphere close to that of actual performance. This is simulation. You may find a room of a size you are to speak in. If possible you speak loudly. You should also practice the bodily action. Proper bodily action augments your communication. You may rehearse in front of a mirror.