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PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLANDS OF PAKISTAN

Q5. POINTING OUT THE MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF PAKISTAN, EXPLAIN THEIR CHARACTERISTICS.
OR
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT HIGHLANDS OF PAKISTAN?
OR
DESCRIBE THE PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLANDS OF PAKISTAN.

ANSWER:
Pakistan, with reference to highlands, can be classified into two parts:

First : North East Highlands
Second: North West Highlands
The details of the two is given as under:

a. NORTH-EAST HIGHLANDS:
North-East Highlands include the following:

1. KARAKORRAM RANGE:
In the extreme north of Pakistan, there are Karakorram Range and its connected hills with the average height of 6000 meters. The second highest mountain ‘Godwin; or K-2 is included in the same range. The height of this mountain is 28,000 ft. This mountainous range is covered by various glaciers and Sia Chin, Haspar, Baifo, Biltora and Batoora are important of them. Crossing these mountains is very difficult and it can be assessed by the fact that the passes of this range are also very hi9h. For instance The Karakorram is 5,500 ft. and Gilgit is located on the same.

2. HINDUKUSH RANGE:
In the South-West of Karakorram Range, Hindukush Range and other mountains are located. This range begins to rise from plateau of Pamir in the west of Karakorram Range. The Hindukush Range, turning towards South, guards Pakistan in South and South West. These mountains remain covered with snow. Moreover, some glaciers are also here. There are great peaks like 7,690 meter high peak of Trich Mir.

For crossing the difficult range like Hindukush Range, the difficult passes like Narohill Pass and Dorali Pass are to be crossed. Sawat, Chitral and Dir are located on these mountains. River Chitral, River Kubar, River Panjgoce and River Sawat have cut these heights very deep and converted them into valleys. Most of these valleys are cultivated.

3. THE HIMALAYAN RANGE:
There are 4 mountainous ranges are stretched in the North West of Pakistan classified as under:
First: The Shiwalak Highlands located in the skirt of Himalaya. Since this range is connected with the plain areas, these hills are not very high or their average height is 100 meters. Gujrat, Jhelum and Sialkot are located on the same highland range.

Second: This highland is higher than the Shiwalak Highland Range and is the highest part of Pir Panjal Range. In other words, the average height of this range is 5,000 meters. Murree, Nathia Gali and Ayubia are located in the North. Moreover, the beautiful areas of Kaghan and Abbotabad are also located in this Range.

Third: The Great. Range of Himalya is located in the North of Punjab Range. The snow covered peaks are 1,500 to 4,600 meters high. Some big 9laciers are there on some mountains and he highest Peak of this range is 8,000 meters Naga Parbat. The heavenly Valley of Kashmir is situated between Pir Panjal and Himalya.

Fourth: The Laddakh Range comprises comparatively on low mountains which is located in Himalayan Range.

b. NORTH-WEST HIGHLANDS:
North West Highland area has been divided as follows:

1. WAZIRISTAN HILLS:
Waziristan Hills are stretched between River Gomal and River Korram. The highest peak of these hills is 3,400 meters Pir Gil. These hills draw the line of demarcation between Pakistan and Afghanistan. The Tochi Pass and Gomal Pass are famous amongst these hills.

2. KIRTHAR HILLS:
These hills are located in west of lower Valley of Sindh and South of Sulaiman Mountain. This mountainous range is stretched up to Quetta.

3. WESTERN RANGE OF HINDUKUSH:
As compared to Sawat, Chitral and Dir mountains, the Western Range of Hindukush is low; from 1, 000 to 2,000 meters.

4. SULAIMAN RANGE:
Sulaiman Range is located in the South of River Gomal. The highest peak of this range is Takhat-e-Sulaiman; 3,500 meter high.

5. THE SAFED KOH RANGE:
Safed Koh Range is stretched in East and West with an average height of 3,600 meters. These peaks remain covered with snow for the entire year. The highest peak of this range is 5,000 ft. high Sagram. In other words, right from Khaybar Pass to Karakorram Pass, the entire mountainous range is known as Sated Koh Range. This range joins the hills of Kohat.

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