Q20. HIGLIGHT THE FAVOURABLE PHYSICAL FACTORS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF COTTON.
ON WHICH NATURAL FACTORS THE BETTER CULTIVATION OF COTION DEPENDS? DISCUSS.
“APART FROM HUMAN FACTORS, COTTON CULTIVATION DEPENDS ALSO ON NATURAL FACTORS”. ELUCIDATE THE STATEMENT.
As favourable and suitable climate and soil is required for better cultivation of other agricultural crops, the physical environment should also be favourable for cotton cultivation. Physical or natural factors include ‘climate’ and ‘soil’. The detail of both these factors is given as under:
For the best cotton cultivation, the following physical factors play important role:
Climate is the important factor for the cultivation of cotton because cotton cultivation requires long period, bright sunshine, according to an estimation minimum 200 shining days and sufficient supply of water. Moreover, weather should be dry at the time of ripping and harvesting of time. Those conditions are found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of both the hemispheres between 35 degree north and 25 south latitudes. Climate is constituted by two basic factors; temperature and rainfall.
The seed of cotton, right from its germination to complete growth requires abut 60 degree FH temperature. Moreover, cotton plant needs frost free 200 days with bright sunshine and 25 degree centigrade temperature. Too much hot is harmful but bright sunshine is favourable because dry air improves the quality of cotton.
2. IRRIGATION / RAINFALL:
Cotton plant, for its vegetative growth, requires average 20 centimeter to 50 centimeter or 8 inches to 20 inches annual rainfall. For the ideal cultivation of crop, this average should be 30 to 48 inches a year. After ripping and before harvesting, rain damages the cotton.
The dry areas where irrigation facilities are available have been proved to be ideal regions for cotton cultivation and the place of Pakistan, to this reference, is very distinctive. The total period of cultivation (from sowing to harvesting) requires 4 time irrigation water.
Fertile soil is the second basic required condition for the best cultivation of cotton. The layer of the soil should be thick, soft and with sufficient quantity of lime. The Upper and Lower Indus plains in Pakistan, to this effect, are highly fertile with alluvial soil. Alluvial soil with volcanic lava soil having large amount of phosphate is ideal for cotton cultivation.