Q15. HIGHLIGHT THE FAVOURABLE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS FOR SUGAR CANE CULTIVATION.
DISCUSS THE ROLE OF NATURAL CONDITION FOR THE CULTIVATION OF SUGAR CANE.
WHICH NATURAL FACTORS PLAY DECISIVE ROLE IN SUGAR CANE CULTIVATION. EXPLAIN.
‘SUGAR CANE CULTIVATION DEPENDS ON PHYSICAL FACTORS”. DISCUSS.
Although sugar cane is the crop of tropical regions but it cultivated in sub- tropical regions also using irrigation facilities. Sugar cane is the long term crop which is ripped in 10 to 18 months. Sugar cane requires hot and wet climate for its vegetative growth and ripping.
Climate and soil are the main factors included in physical factors discussed as under:
Sugar cane requires moist climate during its vegetative growth period and dry climate at the time of ripping, because dry season and see breeze increase the sucrose proportion in sugar cane, Climate is constituted by the two factors; temperature and rainfall.
Sugar cane, during the entire growth period, needs war weather. If the temperature, for this purpose, is maintained between 18 to 30 centigrade, it should be most suitable condition. Temperature above 40 degree centigrade and below 15 degree centigrade would be harmful for sugar cane crop. Frost damages the crop (When the sugar cane approaches the ripping stage, mild sunshine and dry weather is needed.
2. IRRIGATION/ RAINFALL:
Being tropical plant, sugar cane needs moisture in abundance during its vegetative growth period. Sugar cane needs 100 to 150 centimeter or 40 to 60 inches rainfall. The regions where rainfall is low or even in the rain fed areas during the draught period, sugar cane is cultivated on the basis of irrigation facilities. If the dry season stretches long, growth of sugar cane stops and production falls. During the ripping period, bright sunshine coupled with dry season suits very much.
Sugar cane cultivation in Pakistan, due to low rainfall, depends on irrigation to a greater extent. To comply with this objective, sugar cane crop needs 16 to 18 times water during its total vegetative growth. Experience reveals that the production of sugar cane cultivated in the irrigated areas increases as compared to the crops in rain fed areas. The relation of sucrose in sugar cane, with reference to rainfall, differs from circumstances to circumstances. Too much rain decreases the proportion of sucrose in sugar cane juice.
Favourable soil for sugar cane cultivation should be fertile, deep and be capable to drain water. The sugar cane cultivation field should be leveled with a slight slope. The soil should contain Phosphate, Phosphorus, Potash and Lime. The alluvial soil of Indus plains and the deltaic soil are most suitable for sugar cane cultivation nevertheless; the use of chemical fertilizers can give the best results.