Q4. DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN ‘DENSITY OF POPULATION’ AND ‘DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION’. DISCUSS THE WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION.
HIGHLIGHT THE PATTERN OF WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION.
EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULATION AND RESOURCES IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF WORLD DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION.
Both the terms ‘Density of Population’ and ‘distribution of population’ are synonymous in meaning nevertheless, it is imperative to discuss both of them simultaneously due to reasons because both these terms are commonly used carrying the same sense. The geographers, right from the beginning and the development of geography as a separate branch of knowledge, made their efforts to understand the complex problems related to the distribution of population. The analysis of ‘Density’ of population and ‘Distribution’ of population are of paramount of importance for the experts of geography.
Understanding of density of population and its distribution is of paramount of importance for assessing the role of population of a particular region.
Distinction between Density of Population and Distribution of Population is necessary because:
a. Distribution of population is the ‘place concept’ while.
b. Density of population is ‘proportional concept’.
When we glance at the distribution of population, it refers to the pattern according to which the people decides to settle at a particular place like in the rows, in the fragmented form, near of one another or farm from one to other etc. On the contrary, density means the proportionate relationship between the number of people and the area where they live. When we are confronted with the problem of distribution of population, we are concerned with the spread of population while the problem of density of population is concerned with the proportion maintained between the number of persons and the concerned area.
Geographers prefer to use the term density instead of ‘distribution. Density of population is analyzed to know the pressure of population on the resources 01 a particular region. The measure of density is the number of persons living on one sqr. mile or Kilometers.
Nature has not distributed the population and the resources equally in all the regions. If the population is large at a place then the resources are scarce and if the resources are abundant at other place then the population is thin. Abundance of resources does not mean the dense population and the thin population does not mean the abundance of resources. In other words, the proportion of population and the resources is different in different regions. The size of population, in comparison to the available resources, shows the present nature of population and the resource combination. Nevertheless, the future position depends on rate of population growth.
How far the resources are used in a particular region, does not depend simply on the size of population of that area but social values, economic system, nature of technology, social institutions and nature of political system also play the decisive role. It is commonly witnessed that the regions where there is abundance of water supply and lands are fertile, density of population is higher there. This is the reason that South East Asia, Europe and Eastern America constitute just 10 per cent of the total world area but have 60 per cent world population. On the contrary, 40 per cent of the total area of world is unpopulated because either it is very cold or extremely hot or sand is marshy or mountains does not allow living or the land is not leveled. Physical, cultural, economic and other factors influence the pattern of density of population. These factors include topography, climate, birth rate, death rate, migration rate, history, economic and social institutions, development of irrigation system, minerals and other resources.
According to this table, the Western part of Europe is most densely populated where 168 persons live on one sqr. Km. On the contrary, central area of Africa is most thinly populated where just 16 persons live on one sqr. Km. Since the distribution of population in the different regions of the world is uneven therefore, according to the distribution and density of population, the world is divided into following 5 big regions:
a. VERY THINLY POPULATED REGIONS where less than 10 persons live on one sqr. mile.
b. THINLY POPULATED REGIONS where 11 -55 persons live on one sqr. mile.
c. MODERATELY POPLLATED REGIONS where 51-250 persons live on one sqr. mile.
d. DENSELY POPULATED REGIONS where 251 – 500 persons live on one sqr. mile
e. VERY DENSELY POPULATED REGIONS where more than 500 persons live on one sqr. mile.