Q16. WRITE A DETAILED NOTE ON THE OIL DISTRIBUTION IN AMERICA.
OIL IS EXTRACTED WHERE FROM IN AMERICA. EXPLAIN.
POINT OUT THE AREAS IN AMERICA FROM WHERE MINERAL OIL IS EXTRACTED.
United States of America, for the production and the reserves of mineral oil, Is on top in the world. America not only produces more oil but she also consumes more. This is the reason that America imports crude oil in large quantity from Saudi Arabia,Kuwait,United Arab Emirates and Venezuela etc. There are 158 oil refineries therefore; she is also on top in this behalf. America is the pioneer of extracting and using oil where the first oil was dug at Titusville(Pennsylvania) on August 27, 1859. Although, oil reserves are found in America at various places but the following are of paramount importance:
1. NORTH EASTERN AMERICA:
It is the oldest and main oil producing region stretched from Tennessee to the North east in New York. The areas in Tennessee region from where oil is extracted include Ohio, Illinois,Indiana,West Virginia,Pennsylvania and New York. The oil extracted from here is of high quality containing minimum proportion of sulfur due to which it is refined easily.
2. ROCKY MOUNTAINS REGION:
This region is stretched from Montana to New Mexico in the Eastern Mountains. Since the mineral oil is scattered in small reserves, exploration of oil is not only difficult but also expensive. The important oil producing states in this region are New Mexico and Wyoming. Extreme and severe climate, difficult topography and the deep availability of oil are the unfavorable conditions which hamper in the extraction of oil.
3. SOUTH-WESTERN REGION OF CALIFORNIA:
California occupies the third position in United States of America for the production of oil. The production of oil, in this region, has been increased after 1910. The oil reserves are concentrated here in Los Angeles,Long Beach and Southern San Joaquin Valley. Chances of discovering the new reserves here are very bright.
Kuparuk oil reserves were discovered in Alaska in 1980. According to a survey, the oil reserves can surpass the reserves of Kuwait also but the cost of exploration is very high hero due to harsh climate and non availability of means of transport. Production of oil from Kuparuk Oil field is constantly increasing. The largest oil field in Kuparuk region is Prudhoe Bay field situated at the Northern slope of Alaska and this is the biggest reserve discovered in Western hemisphere.
5. GULF COAST REGION:
This region comprises of Texas,Louisiana, Southern Mississippi and South-West Alabama. Since the oil explored from here contains high proportion of Asphalt, it is highly suitable for industrial purposes.
6. MID-CENTRAL REGION:
This region is stretched from Central and Western Texas and Southern Arkansas to Southern Louisiana through Kansas City. This is the biggest and highly productive region in United States of America where the oil was extracted first in 1890. Fifty per cent of the total oil reserves of United States of America are concentrated in this region. Light Paraffin and high Asphalt is mixed in the oil extracted from here.
Mexico occupies 9th. position for the oil reserves at the world level. It is the second biggest area after Venezuela where 28.3 billion barrels crude oil is estimated. Mexico is also the big exporter of crude oil. Oil exploration began here in the middle of 1901 when high grade mineral oil was discovered in the coastal areas of Tampico and Tuxpam. Within 23 years, the production oil reached here at the peak awarding the second position to Mexico at the global level. The important oil fields are Reforma, Chicon, Tepec and Cantarel.
Oil was discovered in Venezuelain 1918 and in 1930 she occupied the second position in the world for the production of oil. Venezuela maintained this position up to 1960 but Russia(former) and Middle Eastern countries over throne her. The production of oil is more than the consumption here the fore,Venezuela is also one of the important oil exporting countries. There are two places where the oil reserves are concentrated; Gulf of Marachaibo Orinoco Basin.