Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.




Buying modes or methods are as follows:

Buying by physical inspection

Buying by description, brand, grade

Buying by sample or pattern


Buying By Physical Inspection

Goods are inspected on the spot as to the quality, variety, brands, finishing, craftsmanship, packaging, and the like. This mode facilitates comparison, determination of exact quality or grade, and the use of personal bargaining ability.


Buying By Description Brand And Grade

This is only suitable when inspection or sample is not possible or required. It is quite common in foreign trade. Grades are used in dealing in agricultural products, as rice, cotton, jute, mangoes etc. Brands arc feasible when the goods are machine-made or electronic which include cars, computers, calculators watches, TVs, disc players, sewing machines. Description is required in books, shirts, hats, stationery, etc. Here catalogs are commonly used.

Buying By Samples And Patterns

The samples may be used when its cost is justifiable and the goods are of uniform nature. In fact, sample is an alternative way of inspection. Samples and patterns are used in buying cloths, medicines,  confectionery etc.

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