MODERN VIEWS ON LEADERSHIP
Having discussed classic approaches to leadership lets see what modern views on leadership are. The modern management theorists describe three types of leaders:
1. Substitutes for Leadership
Many situations exist when people don’t need leaders. Such situations act as substitutes for leadership and are created by (i) task performance-centered behavior, and (ii), group maintenance-centered behavior. Such behaviors creating substitutes for leadership are the result of the following factors:
Inherently satisfying jobs
Experience and ability of the follower
Rigid rules and procedures
Such factors make the followers self-motivated, self-directed who perform independently and without the direct supervision of the leader. The leader in return focuses on other important matters.
2. Charismatic leaders
Leaders may have chrisma that is defined as, ‘a spiritual power given by God: personal quality or gift that enables an individual to impress and influence many of his followers: a similar quality felt to reside in an office or position”.
Charisma is also defined as, “it packs an emotional power for followers above ordinary esteem, affection, admiration, and trust. The charismatic is an Idolized hero, a messiah and a savior.
Charismatic readers have a vision and command communication skills. They have the ability to fascinate and magnetize people by their superior qualities as creativity, ideological goals, Missions, Adventurism, Courage, Innovation, strong norms, and risk taking. They inspire respect, confidence, trust, and submission in their followers.
3. Transformational Leaders
Once charisma reaches its peak the leadership turns into the one known as transformational leadership which converts the prospective things into reality. The leadership creates challenges and enthusiasm and makes the job interesting.
Transformational leaders sacrifice their personal needs and interests for the organization. They possess the following characteristics:
a. They have a vision.
b. They effectively convey the vision to their followers.
c. Transformational leaders have self-respect.
d. Such leaders inspire trust by being firm, consistent, fair, and goal-oriented.
e. Leaders with transformation are far above the leaders with traditional organizational authority.
Jonathan Swift defines vision as “the art of seeing the invisible” In other words, it simply means wisdom.