Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.



Production has four methods:

1. Synthetic process

2. Analytical process

3. Extract process

4. Fabricating process


1. Synthetic process

It is the process by which different materials are combined to produce a new product. Iron, glass, polyester, rayon, fiber glass, and crockery are the examples of the goods produced by synthetic process. Under it some of the goods are produced by physical change. Conversion of paper into books, copies, writing pads is the example. Some materials are chemically converted into a new product. Glass, rayon, and polyester can be quoted in this case. Some goods are produced by assembly as cars, TV, radio, etc.


2. Analytical process

By this process goods are broken down or analyzed into other types of goods. Petroleum products are a case in point. The oil extracted from the earth is analyzed into petrol, diesel, kerosene, grease etc. Even petrol alone is divided into various grades. Meet, wood, and shirts are the result of analytical process.


3. Extractive process

This process is concerned with extracting, mining and drilling. Coal, iron, lead, gold, silver and gypsum are extracted from mines. Oil is drilled from the earth. Many products are extracted from the sea.


4. Fabricating process

It involves cutting, weaving, processing, pressing, finishing or sanforizing. Steel and cloth are manufactured under the fabricating process. Fabricating refers to making, producing, manufacturing, building or constructing.

Continuity of the manufacturing process is of two kinds as:

a) Continuous process

b) Intermittent process


a) Continuous Process

When manufacturing process continues from start to end it is called continued process. It calls for unstopped operation of the process. The work continues day and night and even on days off and holidays. The operation under this process cannot be stopped because of many reasons:


i. The furnace cannot be extinguished and if it is, its refining will be highly costly and may even require days or weeks to reach the required temperature.

ii. The nature of product is such that it must be manufactured without any pause or it will be spoiled by delayed chemical process. Production of steel requires a continuous operation and any pause in it will fail its production.

iii. Continuous production is also required to meet continuous demand.


b) Intermittent Process

Under intermittent process production operation is carried out in intervals. This type of process is undertaken for the following reasons.

i. The nature of the product or process calls for periodic stoppage, and hence continuous process cannot be carried out.

ii. When the factory works only in one shift. Once the time is over the work is stopped. The process then starts again the next day.

iii. The factory makes to order. Once the order is complete the process comes to an end until the next one.

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