Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.

LOWER PLAINS OF RIVER INDUS

Q7. WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE LOWER PLAINS OF RIVER INDUS? DISCUSS.
OR
HOW DO THE LOWER PLAINS OF INDUS PROVIDE NATURAL PROTECTION AGAINST FLOODS IN PAKISTAN? EXPLAIN.

ANSWER:
The lower plain of River Indus becomes leveled slopsloping southwards. As consequence of leveled bed, the flow of River Indus becomes extremely slow. As a result of this dead slow, the soil brought by it begins to settle down in the bottom of the River.

As a result of this process, the bottom of the river continued to rise. This is the reason that many miles long natural embarkment has been built along the banks of the river Indus. This natural embarkment provides protection to the adjacent areas against flood.

The entire province of Sindh is comprised of the lower plains of Sindh. In the East of this plain there are Punajab and Baluchistan, in the West, Kirthar hills, Arabian Sea and Karachi in the south and Rajputana desert is located in the East. Seven canals have been generated from the River Indus and the Dam near Sukkhar which collectively irrigate 600,000 hectors land. Oil seeds, cotton, rice and wheat are cultivated in this plain.

The lower plain of Indus has been divided into two parts as under:
a. EASTERN PLAIN composed of ‘Khaddar soil brought by River Indus. There are many saltesh lakes also in this region termed in the local language ‘Dhund’.

b. WESTERN PLAIN composed of ‘Bhangar’ soil brought by River Indus during the ancient period. Here are many marshy lakes and the biggest one is known as Manchar Lake.

The River Indus begins to divide into branches near Hyderabad clue to which Delta is created which Is the biggest delta in the world. The lower Indus plains are termed as ‘Manchins’ of Sindh.

River Indus clearly divides into many branches near Thatta and makes delta. At the times of sea tidings, oceans water over flows this delta. The soil is marshy and the eastern part of this delta is excessively marshy and enters into ‘Ran of Kach’. The dominant part of this delta is barren where nothing can be cultivated.

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