Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.








Prior to preparing and implementing the programme of development for any sector, analyzing the development past of the sector becomes necessary so that the path of future success may be paved by rectifying the mistakes of past. As consequence of this analysis, the following facts are revealed:

In 1947, as a result of division of united India, when a new Muslim State Pakistan appeared on the World Map, Punjab was producing abundant food grains because of her ideal and the best canal irrigation system of the world. The development of agricultural sector, despite its dominant size and importance, was neglected In the initial period and industrial development was given unnecessarily and illogically because there was no industrial base in Pakistan at that time.


The history of agricultural development in Pakistan can periodically discussed as under:


FIRST PERIOD (1947 TO 1953):

No development could be taken place in agricultural sector due to the following reasons:


1. The Six Year development programme (Colombo Plan) was abandoned two year earlier in 1955.


2. In 1951, acute food shortage was faced by Pakistan due to which one million tone of wheat had to be imported.


3. As a result of division of India, a great number of refugees entered in Pakistan from India therefore, the problem of their rehabilitation was given priority to solve rather to think about development.


4. The twin menaces Water Logging and Salinity began to swell the agricultural Lands in rural areas.


5. The agricultural lands were allocated to the refugees who where not cultivators by profession therefore, they did not pay their attention towards the development of agricultural lands.


6. There was noting like ‘technology’ in the agricultural sector.


7. Industry was over emphasized at the cost of agriculture.


The economic planners, at last, realized that agriculture and industry should develop simultaneously and the First Five Year Plan of Pakistan was designed with the same realization.

SECOND PERIOD (1955-1960):

During this period, the following changes took place:


1. It was observed that rapidly increasing population, industrial development, urbanization and increase in supply of money needed the increase in agricultural production so that the negative gap between the demand and supply of food grains might be bridged up and the object of economic development might achieved.


2. During this period, lack of institutional credit facilities, absentee Land Lordism, uneconomic holdings, outdated and deflective Land Tenure System etc. set highly negative effects.


3. It was the period of First Five Year Plan of Pakistan during which increase in the food grains production by 9 per cent and increase in cash crops by 15 per cent was targeted but unfortunately it could not be achieved.


4. The agricultural sector, due to reasons, remained neglected up till 1958.


5. During 1955-58, the average growth rate of agricultural sector was 1.3 per cent per annum while the population growth rate was 2.6 per cent a year due to which the demand for food grains increased tremendously.


THIRD PERIOD (1960-65):

This is the Second Five Year Plan period of Pakistan during which the situation of agricultural sector was observed as under:


1. It was targeted during this period that the dietary value would be improved and for this purpose the product ion of fish, fruits, vegetables and live stock supply would be raised. Moreover, the production of cotton and jute would also be increased substantially.


2. The effective measures of this period increased the production and productivity in both agricultural and industrial sectors. The target of agricultural production was fixed at 21 per cent but it was achieved by 27 per cent. The target of cotton was achieved by 33 per cent against 38 per cent. The target of sugar cane increase was fully achieved which was 34 per cent. The target of jute production was fixed at 2.2 per cent was achieved by 3 per cent.

3. The government, for achieving ‘the targets of the Plan, adopted some strategical measures including agrarian reforms, use of modern agricultural technology and provision of credit facilities to the cultivators.


FOURTH PERIOD (1965-70):

This is the Third Five Year Plan period inPakistanduring which the following agricultural trends were observed:


1. The agricultural production increased from 6.2 per cent in 1961-62 to 11.2 per cent in 1967-68 because of availability of required water supply and use of new methods of cultivation.


2. During this period up till 1968 a positive change in the agricultural sector was observed.


FIFTH PERIOD (1968-2001):

During this period, it was observed that:


1. No clear cut picture of agricultural development could be emerged but it remained very gloomy. Extra ordinary ups and down lations took place in agricultural sector.


2. The agricultural growth rate in 1968-69 was 4.5 percent which, due to reasons, decreased to 2.5 per cent in 1976-77. The causes behind this decline were non-congenial relationship between the tangent and land lord, problems of Water Logging and Salinity, high prices of agricultural inputs, natural calamities, attacks of insects and pasts, plant diseases and the use of low production seeds.


3. The positive trend in the production of agriculture increased after 1977 due to which the growth rate increased from 2.5 per cent to 4.2 per Cent in 1977.


4. The growth rate of agricultural sector was recorded at 4.9 per cent in 1982-83. This positive trend was due to use of insecticides and pesticides and the better fertilizers.

5. In 1993-94, the growth rate once again was dropped to 2.8 per cent. The growth rate decreased due to decline in the production of cotton and wheat. During this period, Leave Curling disease attack on cotton crops while the production of wheat decreased due to drought.


6. The growth rate of agricultural sector increased from 5.9 per cent in 1994-95 to 6.7 percent in 1995-96 but again dropped to 2.8 per cent in 1997-98 and it declined further to 1 .9 per cent in 1 998-99. In 1999-2000, this growth rate increased once again to 6.1 per cent.


7. The growth rate in the agricultural sector was recorded at 2.5 per cent in 2000-01. Collective situation of this sector remained highly unsatisfactory. The main cause of this was severe drought in the two provinces of the country;Baluchistanand Sindh. The production of main crops of wheat, rice, cotton and sugar cane decreased substantially.


SIXTH PERIOD (2002-04):

During this period, the following trends were shown by the agricultural sector:


1. Excessive ups and downs took place in the growth of agricultural sector during 2002-03. Acute shortage of irrigation water prevailed during this period and drought severely affected this sector. The rate of growth rate during this period was recorded at 4.2 per cent.


2. It rained sufficiently during 2003-04 due to which positive changes took place in the agricultural sector. Nevertheless, growth rate remained below that of last year because of decreased production of cotton.

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