Q13. ANALYZE THE INFLUENCES OF CLIMATE ON THE HUMAN LIFE.
HOW DOES THE CLIMATE INFLUENCE THE LIFE STYLE AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF PEOPLE? DISCUSS.
“HUMAN LIFE PATTERN AND HIS ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ARE DEEPLY INFLUENCED BY CLIMATE”. ELUCIDATE THE STATEMENT.
HOW ARE THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE SET ON THE LIFE STYLE AND THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE PEOPLE OF PAKISTAN? EXPLAIN.
General weather condition is called climate’ whether this situation prevails for one day or a month or a year, because the constituents of climate include temperature, average of rainfall, moisture in air, wind pressure and the winds. We have stated in the foregoing pages that the climate of Pakistan in different regions is different due to different physiological condition, distance from the sea and the height from the surface of sea. As a result of different climate, the economic activities of people, their physique, their temperament, life style, style of home construction, diet, dress and the social customs are different from one region to other region.
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE:
The different climate affects the economic activities and their life style differently in the following manner:
1. EFFECT ON DENSITY OF POPULATION:
Climate affects the distribution or density of population of a region deeply. The regions in Pakistan where the climate is severe (desert areas or coldest areas), have thin population. The density of population in these areas, is less than 2 persons per sqr. kilometer. The areas where the climate is temperate and specially in the Indus plains, density of population is high because the agricultural activities can easily be carried in such areas, The Upper Plain of lndus is one of the most densely populated regions. At some of the places, the density exceeds 1,000 persons per sqr. kilometer.
2. EFFECT OF CLIMATE ON NATURAL VEGETATION:
The types and kinds of natural vegetation in a particular region is determined by the temperature and the rainfall of that area. For instance, the mountainous regions, duo to cold climate, produce coniferous plants and trees and this is the reason that the people of these regions adopt occupation related to cutting and lumbering activities. In the desert areas, due to low rainfall and high temperature, only thin grass and thorny bushes are grown on which sheep, goats, camel etc. graze therefore, the people adopt the occupation of herding in such areas. It the region is temperate in climate, the people adopt the occupation related to cultivation and forestry.
3. EFFECTS ON LIFE STYLE:
The differences of climate deeply influence the life pattern of the people and their economic activities. For Instance, The people of cold areas use woolen clothes and remain mostly within the home surroundings, Contrary to it, the people living in the hot countries, wear cotton clothes and remain outside the home in the open air.
The difference of climate also determines the style of construction and their designs. For instance, the people of hot countries construct such houses which have maximum ventilation. Moreover, the roofs of houses are constructed leveled. On the contrary, the people of cold areas keep minim ventilation in their houses and the roofs are made slope so that the snow might be slide down.
Climate also determines the human diet and the food dishes deeply. The people of severely cold regions use dry fruits, meet and energy providing goods while the people living in the hot regions use cold drinks, vegetable, milk and yogurt etc.
The differences of climate also determine the occupations of the people of a particular area. The people in the desert areas lead wandering life because nothing could be predicted in these areas due to which the people do not live at a particular spot permanently. Since the herding is the main occupation of the people in these regions, they continue to migrate from one place to other in search of grazing fields and water for their herds.
In the cold countries, the people adopt out door occupations in summer season only but during winter, they prefer to adopt the indoor occupations. In the cold countries, the people work more during summer and less during winter season. The common occupation of the people living in the plain areas is agriculture.
Similarly, the entertainment activities of the people are also determined by the climate. In the hot regions, the people like to adopt out door games while in the cold countries they prefer to play indoor games.
4. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON AGRICULTURE:
Which crops are grown in a particular area depends on the temperature and the rainfall of that region. For instance, the agricultural activities are almost nil in the deserts of Thai, Tharparkar and Chulistan. The agriculture in these deserts entirely depends on expected rains. If it rains, the crop is sown otherwise drought falls. Ultimately, the agricultural activities become very limited in the desert areas.
As the climate is extremely cold in the north and North-West of Pakistan, the period of agricultural activities is very short and only those crops and fruits are cultivated which can bear the severe cold. On the contrary, during the winters no crop is cultivated because the agriculture is not — possible where the temperature remains below 40 degree for the entire year.
On the contrary, excessive agricultural activities take place in the plain areas because required rains, reasonable temperature and availability of canal irrigation are helpful in agricultural activities. These regions provide wheat, cotton, rice, maize and oil seeds to millions of people of the country.
The different crops are cultivated due to difference in climate. The crops which can be cultivated in the temperate climate need temperate temperature and low rain therefore, wheat, tobacco and Masur are cultivated. For the cultivation of sugar cane, maize, rice etc. moisture and high temperature is required. For the cultivation of cotton, high temperature and temperate rainfall is needed and this is the reason that the cultivation of these crops is confined to the specific regions.
5. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON TOPOGRAPHY:
Like soil formation, the elements of climate temperature, rains, moisture in air and winds breaks the rocks in grains and this substance is shifted on the lower level of mountains, plains, lakes and oceans. Like the other big mountainous ranges, the Himalayan range is also the result of flowing waters which deposited the materials layer over layer in the bed of the shallow seas. Afterwards, as a result of the radical changes and evolutionary processes under the surface of the land, this great mountainous range came into being. Now this mountainous range, with the help of River Indus and its tributaries is forming the plains of Sindh. The flow of rivers, on the other hand, depends on water vapors, rains and the snow resting on the peaks of Himalya.
6. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE ON WATER AVAILABILITY:
The importance of water can be realized by the fact that no economic activity can be undertaken without water as well as the human, animal and vegetation life also depends on water. This is climate which provides us water. Water is found on the mountains in the form of snow and in the form of rains in the plain regions We get water from the rivers and the rivers obtain water from the rains Water is gathered under the surface by seepage of water in the soil and create water reservoir. Briefly speaking, the human fife depends on water and water (rains) is the gift of nature for man. The whole of this integrated system is the result of climate.
7. EFFECT OF CLIMATE ON SOIL FORMATION AND ITS CLASSIFICATION:
The existing rocks provide basic material for the soil formation and the type of these rocks plays the key role in the determination of the kind of soil. Organic elements, with the rock substance, are the key Ingredient of the soil and determine the fertility of the soil and the agricultural position of the country concerned. Climate plays the central role in the formation and type of the soil because winds, glaciers, flowing water and the rains erosion activity takes place. In the rocks and then them, leaving their origin, are gathered at other place In other form. Nevertheless, the property of this soil now does not remain the same as they were in the form rock. Climate, growing natural vegetation, converts it into organic elements and so the fertility is created in the soil which aids agriculture.