Q2. INTRODUCING HYDEL POWER HIGHLIGHT THE HYDEL POWER PROJECTS IN PAKISTAN.
WHICH HYDEL POWER PROJECTS OF PAKISTAN HAVE BEEN PLAYING CONSTRUCTIVE ROLE IN GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY? EXPLAIN.
Pakistan possesses 30000 MW generating capacity of hydel power which is the cheapest source of energy. Fortunately, rivers flowing in Pakistan get water from the rice melted on the mountains therefore, these are the perennial rivers which have water whole of the year. Most of the hydel power projects are located in the North Western part of the country.
Prior to inception of Pakistan there were two hydel power projects here: one was established in 1925 at Ronala having capacity of one MW and the other was established at Mala Kand in 1938 with a generating capacity of 20 MW. Today there are 13 hydel power projects engaged in generating 5010 MW electricity. One gigantic project is under completion on Terbela Dam and one of its units began to generate eloctricity in since October, 2000 with a capacity of 290 MW. At the completion of this project, the total generating capacity of this project would be 1450 MW 290 each unit or there would be 5 units of this project.
Total hydel energy in Pakistan is under the control of WAPDA (Water and Power Development Authority). Out of 13 hydel power projects of Pakistan. 4 (Terbela, Mangla, Warsak and Chashma) are big while the remainder are small hydel power projects.
The detail of the 5 big projects is given below:
1. TERBELA HYDEL POWER PROJECT:
Terbela Dam has been constructed blocking water of River Indus at Terbela which is biggest earn filled dam of Asia and the biggest power generating project of Pakistan. This project has been constructed in the Province of Frontiers 32 miles away from Attock. The length of this dam is 9000 ft., Width 8,500 ft while the length of its lake is 500 ft which is located at the back of the Dam. The height of Terbella Dam is 485 ft. The lake of Terbella Dam has the capacity to store 1300,000 Cusbc Ft. water. Fourteen power generating units have been installed on the basis of thIs project with the total capacity of 20,00.000 KW electricity. The work began on this project in 1955 and was completed in 1988. Terbella is a multipurpose project which, in addition to generate power, irrigates the agricultural lands also.
2. MANGLA HYDEL POWER PROJECT:
Near Mirpur (Azad Kashmir) (Mangla Multipurpose Dam has been constructed on River Jehlum. The total generating capacity of 10 units attached o the Mangla Project, is 1000 MW. This clam, in addition to generating electricity irrigates 300,000 hectares of agricultural land also. On the left bank of Mangla Dam there are 5 channels and each of which is 1600 ft. long. The electricity produced by Mangal Project has been attached to the Grid System. The length of this dam is 1100 ft and height is 380 ft. while the length of the lake is 40 mile.
3. WARSAK HYDEL POWER PROJECT:
Under this project, at 20 mile North of Peshawar, Warsk Dam has been constructed at Warsak on the River Kabul. This project is provided water by a 717 wido trench like channel. The length of Warsak Dam is 750 ft and height is 239 ft. The length of the lake of the dam is 26 mile while it 1000 ft. deep having the water strong capacity of 20,000 acres ft. Four turbines have been fixed at Warsak Power Station with 40,000 KW electricity each. The total generating capacity of this project, in this manner, is 1, 60,000 KW. The Warsk project, initially, was constructed for power generation but it was converted into multipurpose project due the following reasons:
a. The project provides irrigation water to 100,000 hectares of land through tube wells.
b. It provides irrigation water to 93,000 hectares of land in Tribal Areas.
c. This projects also helps in fish keeping.
Warsak Project provides electricity for both domestic as well as industrial purposes. The economic wellbeing of this area depends on the Warsk Projects. Canadian Government has provided financial assistance in completion of this project.
4. CHASHMA HYDEL POWER PROJECT:
Chashma Power Project was completed in 2001. This project consists on 8 power stations with a 23 MW generating capacity each. This project is located on the right hand of present Chashma Barrage on river Indus in the district of Mianwali. This reservoir of water is also used to store water leaked out from Terbella Dam.
Apart from these 4 big hydel power projects, some small hydel power projects are also in operation.