Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.

Human Theorists

Human Theorists

Several theorists and philosophers have given their classifications of humans:


Hippocrates (460—377 B.C.)

Hippocrates, born in ancientGreecein 460 B.C., was the physician and founder of theHippocraticSchoolof medicine, which greatly bore a great impact on medical science until the 18th century. His school of medicine is still practiced inPakistanin the name of “Tibb-e-Unarii” and ‘Islami Tibb.” He and his followers believed that health was governed by the balance of four body fluids, or humors: Phlegm, blood, black bite, and yellow bile. He is also understood to be the author of Hippocratic Oath, taken by medical students and physicians, binding them to observe medical ethics.


Hippocrates suggests that people are four types:


1. Sanguine

Such people are optimistic, cheerful, hopeful, confident, and ambitious.


2. Phlegmatic

They are sluggish, dull, and lacking in interest. They avoid responsibilities, and are uninterested in the affairs. They are cool minded, and cannot be incited to anger in a normal course.


3. Melancholic

They are the people who live down in the mouth. They are hypochondriac, Jermiah, depressed, and dished. They are pessimists. Their chemistry is composed of black bile.


4. Choleric

They are grouchy, peevish, angry, and bad-tempered. Their chemistry makes them emotional. They have ‘Yellow bile characteristic.


JUNG (1875—1961)

Carl Gustav Jung was the Swiss psychologist of the modern time. He was the student f pioneer psychologist, Sigmund Freud. He discarded the views on human advanced by his teacher. He suggested the following types of human behavior.


1. Extrovert

This type of behavior facilitates thinking, attitude, actions, and decisions by objective rather than opinion. It is reality and environment oriented.


2. Introvert

This behavior is inward and thoughtful. It is guided by personal opinion.

According to Jung extrovert and introvert types of people can be described by four factors which are the inputs that determine the behavior. These factors are as follows:


1. Thinking:

It is based on factual, logical, and rational reasoning.


2. Feeling

It is based on personal and subjective interpretation of the situation.


3. Sensation:

It is how a human perceives things, persons, and situations without making evaluation or analysis.


4. Intuition:

It is based on “sixth” sense which is unconscious inner perception of things.



William H. Sheldon is the modern theorist of physiognomy. Physiognomy is the art of judging personality and character from appearance, especially from the face, on the around that the lace is the index of the mind. He explains the following types of persons:


1. Endomorph

Endomorphic person is of rounded build. He is bulky, sluggish, and soft-tempered, clam dependent, sociable, and loves to eat.


2. Mesomorph

Mesomorphic person is strong, healthy, tough and athletic. He is cheerful, confident, dominant, enthusiastic; talkative, enterprising, and hot-tempered.


3. Ectomorph

Ectomorphic person is thin, slender but sharp-minded He is tense sell-conscious, meticulous, musing, shy, cool, tactful, and sensitive.


According; to Sheldon


(1) An endornorphic person is viscerotonic meaning extrovert, sociable, and fond of bodily comforts.

(ii) A mesomorphic person is somatotonic meaning alert and aggressive.

(iii) The ectomorphic is cerebrotonic meaning introvert, hypersensitive, and brainy.

Related posts:

Leave a Reply

Content Protected Using Blog Protector By: PcDrome. & GeekyCube.