Q25. WHICH ECONOMIC AND OTHER FACTORS PLAY IMPORTANT ROLE IN TOBACCO CULTIVATION? DISCUSS.
HIGHLIGHT THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS WHICH ARE NECESSARY FOR BEST TOBACCO CULTIVATION? EXPLAIN.
“APART FROM PHYSICAL FACTORS, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ARE EQUALLY IMPORTANT FOR TOBACCO CULTIVATION”. ELUCIDATE THE STATEMENT.
For sustained increasing production of tobacco, not only favourable physical factors but other factors are equally important given as under:
1. PLANTING TIME AND SEED RATE:
If tobacco is planted at proper time, its plants will have longer time for their vegetative growth therefore, tobacco should be sown at right time. Small plants (Paniri) of tobacco are prepared about 2 months earlier then their proper time of planting. The ideal time of transferring the small plants o tobacco in the field is December to February. Tobacco seeds are like mustered seeds which are sown in abundance at a small space and after germinating, they become ‘Paniri’ of tobacco. Just 3 grams of tobacco seeds can prepare small plants to be planted sufficiently in one acre of land. When 4 to 5 leaves are appeared in Paniri, it can be transferred to be planted in the field.
2. HARVESTING AND CRUSHING OF TOBACCO:
At the time of harvesting tobacco a great care required to be taken because the systematic harvesting and right crushing of tobacco leaves improves the quality of tobacco and thereby their prices also. The tobacco leaves are plucked from the stem in installments. In other words, they are plucked as they ripe. When the colour of tobacco leave turns from green to golden, it should be plucked. The leaves, after plucking from the stem, are dried to make their colour and quality better. Three methods are used for drying the leaves called ‘Curing’:
a. Curing in air.
b. Curing on fire.
c. Curing in sunshine.
The flavour of tobacco is changed through different methods of curing. Virginia Tobacco is cured by hot wind passed through the iron pipes. Tobacco used for Bidi making is cured under sunshine. After curing, Virginia Tobacco is generally kept in ware house for 2 to 3 years. Prior to sell, tobacco is graded on the basis of tobacco plant’s variety, position, colour and other characteristics. Prior to making cigarettes or Cigars, different flavours and tastes are blended in tobacco artificially.
Cigarette contains an element known as ‘Nicotine’ which possesses capability to show instant reaction. Moreover, nicotine makes the smoker addicted of nicotine. Chewing tobacco is the most inferior quality of tobacco.
3. PROPER PREPARATION OF SOIL:
Although tobacco can be grown in different kinds of soil but different varieties of tobacco need different soil combination. It is, therefore, necessary that the soil to cultivate should be selected according to the variety and moreover, it should be prepared well. If the soil is not well prepared, the use of fertilizers would also not cultivate the expected results. If the soil is dug deep, production of tobacco can be increased substantially.
4. PLANTING METHOD:
Tobacco cultivation is classed as ‘plantation cultivation’ therefore, when 4 or 5 leaves are generated in small plants, they should be transferred to the field and be planted In rows keeping a distance of 3 to 3-1/2 ft. between the two rows. The distance between the two plants should be maintained 1-1/2 ft. nevertheless, the distance between the two plants and two rows also depends on the variety of tobacco. Tobacco plants should be planted on the raised soil walls made for irrigation and after 7 to 10 days they should be irrigated.
5. USE OF FERTILIZERS:
Tobacco plants use Potash, Nitrogen, Phosphate and Magnesium in excess quantity because tobacco crop is prepared In 70 to 75 days therefore, the plants use potash frequently. The use of fertilizers for the tobacco crop should be in large quantity. When the plant is growing and the leaves are making umbrella, for making these leaves big and broad, making their quality best and increasing their number, more fertilizer is required.
6. HIGH YIELD VARIETIES:
For increasing the production and improving the quality of tobacco, high yielding variety seeds should be used. Two varieties are grown in Pakistan; for using In cigarette making and smoking in Hukka. Most of tobacco produced in Pakistan is concerned to be used in cigarette making companies.
7. CROP PROTECTION:
Insects, pests and plant diseases are extremely injurious for agricultural crop so protection against them is necessary. If proper protection is provided, the production of tobacco can certainly be increased by 20 per cent. Production can also be increased by improved marketing, support prices, transport facilities, use of machines, agricultural credit and rotation of crops.
There are severe differences between the tobacco growers and the tobacco goods producers due to which marketing of tobacco has been facing a series of problems. The government of Pakistan therefore, should take measures and formulate laws ifl this connection so that the present defective marketing of tobacco may be converted into detect free and stable which would guarantee benefits to both tobacco growers and the industrialists.
Tobacco industry should begin research on better and modern verities of tobacco. If the efforts are made to decrease the cost and improve the quality of tobacco, the local tobacco industry would give tough competition En the international markets to the competitors. Consequently, foreign exchange earning would also increase.