Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.

ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY

Q. DEFINE ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY.

OR

“ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY IS THE STUDY OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENT. DISCUSS THE STATEMENT.

OR
“COMMERCIAL GEOGRAPHY STUDIES LANDS 1ENVIRONMENT WITH REFERENCE TO HUMAN ACTIVITIES. UP TO WHAT EXTENT YOU AGREE WITH THE STATEMENT? WRITE.

ANSWER:

After the birth and acquiring the sense till his death, person lives with two desires; firstly, he wants to live for the longest period and secondly, he wants to lead a comfortable and luxurious life. In other words, he wants to enjoy his life fully. He needs the food for quenching his hunger, shelter to rest and clothes to cover his body. It these things are not available at the minimum quantity and level, he can’t survive. But it the quantity and quality of these things is increased and improved, who become capable to load his live comfortably and in a better manner. For providing these life requirements, the nature has been very generous because they have been provided on the surface, under the surface and oven in the space. For achieving these things, man combines his mental and manual capabilities and labor or he adopts different professions and occupations like hunting, fishing, agriculture, handicrafts, industry etc. The same thing can also be stated other way that Economic Geography deals with the achievement of livelihood through the human activities coupled with the natural environment.

In other words:

“Economic or Commercial Geography is concerned with human activities related to the land”.

Right from the past to present, it has been the prominent feature of the human activities that he adjusts and synchronizes them in accordance with the natural environment and the landscape. For instance, if he lives in the think forests, he adopts the occupation of hunting. If abundance of water like ocean, rivers, streams or ice lands are available, his activities are turned into fishing. It he lives on a plane and leveled land, he adopts the occupation of agriculture. The subject matter of Economic Geography, therefore, is not only to refer these activities but it also explains the reasons and nature of these activities.

We, for knowing the reasons of industrial development of present Europe America and the industrial backwardness of Afro-Asian and Latin American countries, will have to explore many cultural and technical aspects. This analysis would reveal that why is there the difference of availability of resources between the two parts of the world? Moreover, how the countries which are deficient in some fields, establish the relations with other countries to satisfy their needs through trade. This is the reason that whatever is produced anywhere, us used everywhere in the world.

Economic and trade activities can’t take place in the air therefore, they require some area on earth. Every sensible person would select an area for undertaking his activities which would be most suitable and favorable or this purpose. In other words, he would select the area where the required goods would be in abundance and minimum labor would be needed to reach them. Nevertheless, in most of the cases the area is favorable but other factors may be unfavorable like state laws, climatic conditions, political restrictions, social amenities etc. The man, therefore, can’t concentrate his economic activities in such areas although all other conditions may be favorable.

In the light of above discussion, the different definitions of Economic and Commercial Geography have been evolved given as under:

J.Mcfarlain, defining Economic and Commercial Geography writes:

“INFLUENCE EXERTED ON THE ECONOMIC

ACTIVITY OF MAN BY HIS PHYSICAL

ENVIRONMENT & MORE SPECIFICALLY BY

THE FORM AND STRUCTURE OF THE

SURFACE OF LAND, THE CLIMATIC

CONDITIONS WHICH PREVAIL UPON IT AND

THE SPECIAL RELATIONS IN WHICH ITS

DIFFERENT REGIONS STAND TO ONE

ANOTHER”.

 

Cheshalmz says:

“ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY FORMS SOME

REASONABLE ESTIMATES OF FUTURE

COURSE OF COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT”.

 

Zimmerman, developing a simple definition of Economic Geography, says:

 

“ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY DEALS WITH THE

ECONOMIC LIFE OF MAN WITH RELATION TO ENVIRONMENT”.

Dudley Stamp writes:

 

“ECONQMIC GEOGRAPHY INVOLVES

CONSIDERATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL AND

OTHER FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE MAN’S

PRODUCTIVITY, BUT ONLY IN LIMITED DEPTH,

SO FAR AS THEY ARE CONNECTED WITH

PRODUCTION AND TRADE”.

 

If all the definitions quoted above are combining together, Economic and Commercial Geography can be defined as under:

“Economic and Commercial Geography is the branch of Geography in which the production of geographical environment, area, natural resources (minerals, mineral oil reserves, forests, grazing fields, agricultural farms and natural harbours) with their productivity and suitable user is discussed”.

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