Q13. DISCUSS THE DISTRIBUTION OF PETROL IN CENTRAL ASIA.
WHERE IS PETROL PRODUCED IN CENTRAL ASIA? POINT OUT.
DISCUSS THE PETROLEUM PRODUCING COUNTRIES OF CENTRAL ASIA.
The petrol extracted from Middle East, is the message of life for Western and European countries. Seventy three percent of Asian oil is concentrated in the middle Eastern countries Sixty per cent of the oil drilled from her is exported to other countries. The oil used to be extracted by European companies but now they have been nationalized. As the pressure of crust of land in the Middle Eastern countries is enormous on the oil under the surface, the quantity of oil extracted is also more.
The details of the oil producing Middle Eastern countries are given below:
1. Saudi Arabia:
Oil, in Saudi Arabia, began to be drilled in 1938 from Dammam but Dahran oil field has more oil potentials. The oil reserves of Saudi Arabia are concentrated in her eastern part. The oil reserves from where the oil is mainly drilled are in Abqaiq, Am Dar, Ghawar and Safaniya. Ghawar oil reserves are biggest of all which are stretched from North to South up to 200 Kilometer and from West to East 25 to 50 Kilometers. Thirty eight oil reserves have so far been discovered in Saudi Arabia out of which only 13 are being used therefore, there is an ample opportunity to increase the production of petrol.
Saudi Arabia occupies second position in production of oil at the world level. There is a pipe lines net work here through which oil is supplied. The dominant quantity of crude oil is sent to Ras Tanoora and Bahrain in Persian Gulf.
Iran is the second important petroleum producing country in Asia rated as number 5 in the world. Since Iran produces much more than its oil requirements therefore, her petroleum exports are also higher. There are 9 oil refineries in Iran out of which two big refinances are located in Abadan and Kirman Shah. The first oil well was dug out in 1908 in the reserves of Masjid-e-Suleman. Iran, in this way, is the first oil extractor in Asia. The important petroleum reserves in Iran are located at Masjid-e-Suleman in. South West, Nafte Shah, Lali, Agha Jan and Bahargan. All the big oil reserves are concentrated in South West of Iran. The oil production in Iran, during the last 55 years, has been subject to high oscillations. The main reasons of these ups and downs have been nationalization policy of 1951, political unrest, Great Islamic Revolution, removal of King of Iran and long war with Iraq.
Iraq after Saudi Arabia is the second biggest country which has big oil reserves.Iraq, no doubt, is the big oil producing country but during the last decade, the oil exploration here has been extremely disturbed due to American sanctions and intervention and change of Iraqi government. The oil reserves have been damaged due to Iran Iraq and than Iraq American war. As a result of these incidents, the production of petrol in Iraq has been very uncertain.
In the North of Iraq, the reserves of Kirkukare of paramount importance here where oil was extracted in 1927. The other important oil reserves are located in Basra and Moosal. Most of the oil is obtained from Kirkukand Nafte Khane. The oil refineries in Iraq are in Kirkuk, Alwind, Baghdad, Khanquin, Hadithah, Qayarah and Basra.
Mineral oil in Kuwait was discovered in 1 938 while the production of oil increased tremendously/after the Second World War. The oil reserves have been estimated here 96.5 billion barrels which is 10 per cent of world oil reserves. Kuwait, after Saudi Arabia, Iraq and United Arab Emirates, is the fourth big oil producing country in this region. The large quantity of oil is obtained here from the Bargan reserves. There are 3 big oil refineries in Kuwait due to which oil is exported from Iraq in large quantity.
5. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES:
United Arab Emirates include Abu Dhabi,Qatar and Sharja etc. There are 97.8 billion barrel oil reserves in United Arab Emirates due to which ills at number 6 at world level. Since the production of oil here is much more than the requirement, the major part of petrol in exported. Abu Dahabi is the important oil producing area in this region. The major part of oil is obtained here from Marban. The other important oil producing oil fields are Abu Hassan, Abu Jaidoo, Umme Sail, Zakoom, Bundug,Qatar, Sharja etc.