Q10. GIVE THE DETAILS OF WOOL PRODUCING COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
WHICH COUNTRIES OF TH WORLD PRODUCE WOOL? EXPLAIN.
There are 168 countries which produce wool on commercial level andAustraliais on top of them whiteMaltais at bottom. Out of 168 wool producing countries only 37 produce more than 10,000 metric tones of wool per year.
Following are the important wool producing countries:
Australia is the second country of the world where number of sheep is highest while China is the first. Climate and vast pastures of Australia are the ideal conditions for sheep rearing. The climate of the large part of Australia is dry which highly favourable for sheep rearing. Vast pastures covered with bushes and grass are ideal pastures of sheep.
A large number of sheep are reared in the dry parts of the country. This is the reason that Australia is the leader in wool production. This fact can be realized in the light of the figures that Australia produced 700,000 metric tones of wool in 2002 comprising 30 per cent of the total wool produced in the world during the same period.
The special breed of sheep in Australia is Merynose which consists of 65 per cent of sheep reared here. The cross breed of sheep is 33 per cent here. Best breed of sheep, modem and sophisticated methods of their rearing and arrangement of modern sheep feed are the factors which have made Australia the leader in wool production. The best variety of wool is produced in abundance here. Per sheep wool production in Australia is 12 to 22 Kg.
Sheep are reared in Southern regions, South East and South Western regions. Thin population and temperate climate, the demand for wool inAustraliais low therefore, surplus wool is exported toAmerica,France,Germany,Italy,Britain,China,JapanandIndia.
China, recently, has emerged as one of the important wool producing countries of the world. South West,North West, Western and Central China are the ideal regions for sheep rearing. Sheep keeping is the thousands years tradition in China. China, like those of Australia, has vast grass fields along with Central Asia due to which is capable to rear vast flocks of sheep. There wore 133, 160,000 sheep in China in 2002 and this number is highest in the world.China, in contrast to Australia, produces wool for carpets.
Moreover, per sheep wool productivity, in contrast to Australia, is also low. This is the reason that despite having highest number of sheep,China occupies second position in wool production at world level.
In contrast to other big wool producing countries of the world,Chinais thickly populated and industry as well as the economy is rapidly developing. Consequently,Chinais the biggest consumer of wool in the world. The dominant part of the wool produced inChinais locally used for making blankets, carpets and rugs.Chinaimports Merynos Woos for
Hosiery industry from Australia, South Africa and New Zealand.
3 NEW ZEALAND:
Although the area of New Zealand is small, but startlingly, the number of sheep is very high.New Zealand is at number six.New Zealand has specialized in rearing ‘mutton sheep’ rather than ‘wool sheep’ because of high moist climate and vast grazing fields. Wool, after all, is one of the most important items of imports for Now Zealand. Moist climate, vast grass lands and nearness of sheep farms to the coastal areas has made New Zealand the second biggest wool exporting countries and third wool producing country at the global level.
The Canterbury Plains on the dry delta and in the east of South Island, is the central region for sheep rearing. Moreover, Oakland Peniusula,Hawks Bayregion, Tranki and Wanganui Lowlands in North and the Otago region in the South Island are the ideal areas for sheep rearing. 75 per cent of total wool produced in New Zealandis obtained from Rommey Marsh breed of sheep which are reared here on the very large scale. Middle grade wool is commonly produced inNew Zealand.
4. COMMON WEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES (CIS):
Former United States of Soviet Russia, before 1990, was on top in having the number of sheep for mutton purposes. The total meet used to be consumed locally. Most of the sheep rearing areas are dry and they exclusively grazed on natural vegetation. Amongst CIS states,Russia occupies 20th. Position in the number of sheep kept at the world level and 14th. in wool production. The other sheep rearing and wool producing states are Kazakhstan, Turkmanistan, Uzbekistan, kyrgystan and Azerbaijan. The entire Central Asia has highly favourable factor for sheep rearing on the basis of vast grazing fields, moist to dry climate, plateaus and mountains.
5. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
Sheep are important in U.S.A neither for mutton nor for wool production. The number of sheep in USA is on gradual decrease. In the Western States of America, sheep are reared both for mutton and wool purposes. Most of the sheep are reared in Texas. USA occupies 20 positions for the production of wool at world level. The wool produced here is insufficient even for the local woolen textile industry. Although sheep rearing is not popular in United States of American ever the less, she is leading in the woolen textile industry. Shortage of supply of wool is catered from import.
Britain is a small country in area but densely populated therefore, seep are reared in the areas which can’t be used for cultivation purposes. These sheep rearing regions include mountainous regions of Scotland, Northern Mountains regions of Scotland, Cheviot Hilts, Pennines, the Lake Districts, the Welsh Mountains, the Moor lands of Devon,Somerset and Cornwall and part of Eastern Ireland. Sheep are reared here as Mixed Farming. Sheep rearing provides employment to thousands of people in Britain. Approximately, 42 million sheep are kept here. Woolen textile industry is very old in Britain. Woolen textiles and product of Britain are of high quality and demanded all over the world. Britainal though produces abundant wool but she, to cater the local needs, also imports wool fromAustralia,South AfricaandNew Zealand.Britain, for the production of mutton lamb is the leader of the world and consumes highest amount of lamb meet per head.
Many South American countries are important for sheep rearing but Argentina is most important. Argentina occupies 17th. position at world level for sheep rearing but at number 6 for wool production. Sheep are reared in Argentinain the dry areas including entire Pentagonia, Petra Defego,Western Argentina and the skirts of mountains of Enclise. Sheep rearing is more popular as compared to cattle herding in Argentina because of low and highly variable rainfall, severe winters and thin population.
Very large herds of sheep are kept in Pentagonia covering thousands hectors of area. Argentina is the big exporter both of wool and mutton and 50 ‘per cent of total national income o fArgentina is contributed by Pentagonia exclusively. Sheep are reared friUruguay, Chili, Peru and Southern Brazil also.
8. SOUTH AFRICA:
Sheep are reared in South Africa in the grass lands and plateau of Veld. Merynose and cross breed of sheep are reared here for wool production.South Africa, for sheep rearing, occupies 9th. position at global level and 7th. number in wool production.South Africa is an important wool exporting country and fourth is after Australia, New Zealand and Argentina.
Carpet knitting is the ancient art in Iran and is as old as the creation of Iran itself. Irani carpets are very expensive and demanded all over the world. Wool, in this way, is the basic raw material required in Iran. Iran, for sheep rearing as well as wool production also occupies 4th, position at global level.
Moist to dry climate of Iran, topography based on plateau and mountains and vast grazing fields are highly favourable factors for sheep rearing. Sheep rearing has also been promoted here due to large and growing carpet industry and herding tradition of Iran. Consequently,Iran has earned a distinct name for the production of wool products. Very recently,Iran has begun to replace the local species of sheep with the cross breed sheep due to which the production of wool and its quality is bound to improve.
Sheep rearing in Pakistans as old as the Indus Valley civilization. Sheep rearing is the important source of employment and income for the villagers and wandering tribes of Pakistan. Sheep rearing in Pakistan is widely distributed including mountainous regions, pastures on plateau as well as agricultural lands. Warm and dry areas are ideal for sheep rearing because grass of small height is attractive feed for sheep. Sheep are reared here for wool, mutton and skin. Since other cattle are not kept in the areas of severe climate, sheep and goats are reared because they can bear hard weathers. This is the reason that sheep are reared in the desert of Thai, Chulistan, tribal areas and Baluchistan plateau. As Pakistan produces wool used in carpet knitting, she imports high grade wool from Australia and New Zealand. The species which are reared for wool in dude Bibric, Hernai, Rakhshani, Hasht Nagri, Kaghani, Bumbi, Kacchi, Gomal and Domino.
Pakistan, for sheep rearing and wool production, occupies 10th. and 13th. position respectively at world level. Woolen textile and product industry is vast in Pakistan but due to shortage of high grade wool it is suggested that local species of sheep should be replaced by cross breed so that not only local need of wool may be fulfilled but precious foreign exchange be also saved.
India occupies third position for sheep rearing at the world level. Sheep are reared in Pakistan specially in the district of Hissar in Punjab, districts of Garhwal, Aimora and Naini Tal in Uttar Pradesh and the districts of Gujrat, Karnatak, Baflari, Kirnol and Koembtore in South India.
Indian sheep, with reference to production of wool, is inferior than the sheep of Australia and South Africa. Best wool is obtained from Karshmiri and Himalayan sheep. Best variety of White Wool is obtained from North India. inferior kind of wool is obtained in India from the sheep body slaughtered for mutton purposes. Average production of wool is 2 lbs. per sheep which is lowest amongst wool producing countries of the world. The Government of India, realizing the breeding of best sheep, has established research centers and consequently, large sheep rearing farms have been established in Andhra Predesh, Madhya Predesh, jammu Kashmir, Rajisthan, Utter Precihesh and Bihar. Best species of wool sheep have been imported from Russia for standard breeding. Cross breeds would be obtained on these breeding farms and research centers.
Although India occupies third position in sheep rearing at the world level but occupies 10th. position for wool production due to low productivity of wool per sheep. Best variety of wool is obtained from Kashmir and Bikaner while low grade wool for carpet knitting is obtained from plateau of Daccan. India exports low quality would while imports high grade wool.