Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.










The people of the world, in respect of religion, color, believe and culture, are different. For instance, Whet is used in the different countries in different forms. It is used for making bread in some countries while in other it is used in the form of ‘Sattoo’ (popped flour). Womewhere it is used in the form of porridge but at other places in the form of cakes. Similar to wheat beef, mutton and chicken is also used in different forms in the different countries of the world.

The same is the case of dress. In some countries, the people wear ‘Kurta’ and ‘Shalwar’ while in other courtiers ‘Ghagra’ and ‘Kameez is worn by the people. In some countries, ‘Dhoti’ and ‘Kurta’ but in other countries the people wear coat, shirt, pant and suit. As far as the house is concerned, in some countries wooden houses are built but in some countries stones are used in building the house. In some countries, grass and hey are used for this purpose called ‘huts’. In some countries, the people live in floating house (boat houses).

Similarly, sports, language, sources of recreation and entertainment, religion, system of government and the occupations are different. The people of some countries are dynamic while in some they are lethargic. Briefly speaking, the people of different countries, with reference to the different aspects of life, are different from one another.

An important question arises here that when the world is one then why the people are different? The simple arid obvious answer to this complicated question is that the difference amongst the people is created due to the difference of environment. The difference of people can be divided on the basis of following manner:



The colour of the people differs due to the physical difference. The people of some countries are black in colour like the people of Africa, Yoganda, Kenya etc. while the people of some countries are white in colour like the people of America,Europe, and china. The majority of the people of some countries are neither black nor white but whitewash like the people of India and Pakistan. The difference in colour, height, weight etc. is due to physical difference. This physical environment (climatic condition) is either cold or hot or temperate due to which the people become different in different regions of the world.



Living style and social norms of the people of different countries and the regions of the world differ due to the cultural differences. The people of some regions talk in a loud voice while the people speak in low tone in other regions. One God is worshipped in some areas but hundred of Gods and Goddesses are worshipped in other regions. In some regions, the people burn their dead relatives in other regions they bury them. The marriages are celebrated in different countries differently. Festivals are different in the different countries, In some countries the people travel by air but in other regions animals are used for this purpose.

Briefly, the life style of the people in different countries is different due to the difference of culture.

If reality is glanced at, it is revealed that the world division has come into being due to the physical differences The differences of mountains, plains, rivers, ocean, deserts, forests, rainfall and temperature create not only physical differences but they make the economic and commercial activities also different. In the light of this discussion, the environment can be defined as under:


“Environment refers to the conditions and realities spread around in which man lives”.

The subject matter of Economic Geography is how does a man uses the physical environment for satisfying his life needs. The man, right from the beginning till today is constantly busy either to make environment favourable to him or to adjust himself in the physical environment. He has been concentrating all his efforts on one point that how could he be able to achieve the maximum advantage out of the land and he has been successful to a greater extent in doing so due to which the culture of the people of one area seems to be different than that of others.

In the cultural environment not only the non-material factors are included like religion, technical know-how, traditions, customs, norms and laws but material factors are also included like agricultural land, factories, roads, railways, villages, cities etc. Contrary to it, physical environment includes the form of land, water, climate, soil, vegetation etc.)

In creating the relationship between the man and the environment man, no doubt, plays the dynamic role but the role of environment is also not unimportant.


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