Q11. DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN ‘COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE’ AND ‘SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE’ ACTIVITIES.
WRITE SHORT NOTE ON:
a. COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE.
b. SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE.
The agricultural activities, on the basis of their scale of operation, could be classified into two kinds: Commercial agricultural activities and subsistence agricultural activities.
Prior to the industrial Revolution, in all the countries the agriculture was being carried on Subsistence basis. Every farmer cultivated to cope with the food requirements of the family and raised cattle for milking purpose. He used to acquire wool from the sheep raised and wood from the forest to construct house, cotton from the plants grown on the skirts of main agricultural farms.
His wife and other women in the house spun and knotted cloth for clothing. Clothing were made of skins of cattle in the cold countries and shoes in the hot countries. When he was in leisure by force in the home surroundings due to either extreme hot or cold, he made iron tools and weapons. In other words, he was mason, carpenter, gold smith and farmer at the same time. He used to purchase some items like pepper, salt, earthen pots etc. For the purchasing of these things he used to sell the surplus goods which he produced and made.
It could also be said that the ancient man was self sufficient and depended on others for a few things. He was leading a self sufficient and laborious cultivator’s life. In most of the densely populated Asian countries, Subsistence Farming is still being carried.