Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.



Channels of communication may be divided into the following parts.


1. Internal Communication

a. Horizontal/Crosswise communication

b. Downward communication

c. Upward communication

2. External Communication


Internal Communi­cation

When Communication flows from one person or part to the other within an organization it is called internal communication. It is intra-company communication. Through this type of communication manager leads, guides, directs, motivate, counsels, informs his subordinates. Internal communication has the following channels, or kinds.


a. Horizontal/Crosswise Communication

It is communication that flows between personnel in one department and personnel of equal lower or superior status in other department. Voluntary channels of horizontal communication at all levels speed information and improve understanding. It facilitates subordinates to keep their superiors informed of their interdepartmental activities. If improves the quality of coordination.



b. Downward Communication

When communication flows from superiors to subordinates it is referred to as downward communication. In this channel instruction, guidelines, orders, advice, and information are given to subordinates. Manager motivates guides, advises, and informs his subordinates, Employees can have understanding of organization goals, policies, and products. Boss subordinate relationship is improved. Employees get aware of the laws resulting to health care, insurance, promotions, pension, training, working conditions, retirements, and their service conditions, rights and obligations.


c. Upward Communication

When communication flows from subordinates to superiors, it is referred to as upward communication. It includes daily reports, sales reports explanations, reviews, summaries, statements, and comments. By this medium lower staff keeps their superiors informed of the progress. Appeals, requests, problems, difficulties are communicated. Guidance, advice, and help are sought by the subordinates.



External Communi­cation

It is inter-company communication. Well worded letters, reports, and proposals improve business relations. Oral communication is also used. Disgruntled customers are satisfied. New customers are discovered. New dimensions and depths of the market are exploited. It improves goodwill, public image, safety, productivity, profits, and public credibility.

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