Q7. HIGHLIGHT THE CAUSES OF LOCATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY.
POINT OUT THE FACTORS WHICH HELP IN ESTABLISHING AND DEVELOPING THE COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY.
WHAT IS THE BASIC CONDITION FOR THE LOCATION AND PROMOTION OF COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY? EXPLAIN.
Textile Industry includes all textiles like cotton, woolen silk, rayon jute textiles but here we would discuss specially with the Cotton Textile Industry. Every industry is termed textile industry which utilizes any kind fiber. Although the textile industry originated with the human civilization but with the invention of machines and their use in this industry, it was introduced with revolutionary changes.
(Amongst all kinds of textile industries, cotton textile industry is the most important one because it provides clothing to the population of entire world. Cotton textile and cotton goods comprise the highest volume amongst all the manufactured items. So much so, it is said that the country would conquer which possesses the cotton power.
FACTORS OF ESTABLISHMENT OF COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY:
Both economic and geographical’ factors play their important role in the location and development of cotton textile industry as discussed below:
Energy can be produced by coal, oil, natural gas, electricity etc. As modem heavy machines are used in textile production which can be operated by energy therefore, this industry needs energy. Coal is the cheapest source of energy therefore; cotton industry should be located where the coat reserves are in abundance. Coal produces not only the energy but it also helps in the establishment of engineering industry which is required for repairing the textile machinery. It should be noted that coal is not a good source of energy for generating the machines because it produces carbon therefore; electricity is the best and current source of energy for textile machinery. The countries which produce abundant electricity should be self sufficient in cotton textiles.
Huge amount of capital is required for the purchase of textile machinery, cotton, converting cotton into yarn, payment of labour changes and government taxes and transport charges. Establishment and development of cotton textile industry becomes possb1e and easy in the countries where banking and insurance sectors is wide and strong because they formulate and provide the required capital to this industry.
3. AVAILABILITY OF RAW MATERIALS:
As the profit of cotton textile industry depends on the nature, availability, quantity and the quality of the raw materials used in this industry. The raw materials for cotton textile industry are abundantly available inChina, U.S.A. Pakistan,India,Britain,Turkey,Australia, Mexico etc. due to which this industry developed in these countries fast. Not only the raw materials should be available but they must be available at cheaper cost. Cotton is the key raw material used in cotton textile industry therefore, the country growing cotton in bulk, should have prosperous cotton textile industry.
Peak point, for all the productive activities, is the market because all items are produced and manufactured to sell. The cotton textile industry is also not an exception to this general principle. Not only markets are needed for the sale of produced textiles but these markets should be well organized and capable to absorb the supply of textiles. These required facilities are available in the urban markets.
The market demand is also another important factor for the location and development of cotton textile industry therefore; the regions where demand for cotton textiles is high, this industry should flourish there. It should be noted that demand here does not refer to local demand only but it includes also foreign demand of local textiles.
5. WATER SUPPLY:
For keeping the cotton yarn artificially damp, dying, cleaning, washing and printing, abundant supply of sweet water is required therefore; cotton textile industry should develop in the areas where abundant supply of sweet water is available. This is the reason that cotton textile industry has developed inBerkeleyandLancashiredue to existence of rivers and streams.
6. TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES:
Means of transport, no doubt, are need for all the industries but they are the basic and important condition to fulfill in the cotton textile industry because for shifting cotton from farms to ginning factories, Ginned cotton to textile mills and then finished cloths sheets from the mills to the market places, developed and cheapest means of transport are of paramount importance. Cotton textile industry should be established and developed in the regions where cheap, fast, modern and abundant means of transport are available.
7. SKILLED LABOUR:
As other modern industries need skilled and cheap labour, it is also the necessary condition for the establishment of cotton textile industry. Skilled labour, in this industry, is required for plucking, cleaning, ginning, spanning, dying and weaving. It is, therefore, necessary that like Lancash ire, skilled, abundant and cheap labour should be available for the location and development of cotton textile industry. The example ofFaisalabadandKarachi, in this behalf, can be extended.
8. AVAILABILITY OF LAND:
As big plots of land are needs for the construction of textile mills therefore land is also another basic requirement and not availability but location and topography of land is also equally important. The cotton textile mills can’t be constructed on the slops, thick forests and marshy lands.
Climate plays also an important role in the location and development of cotton textile industry. For instance, spinning of cotton is not possible in the dry climate because the dry yarn is broken again and again, the broken and knotted yarn would deteriorate the quality of the textile and the manufacturing process would also be late. This is the reason that Karachi, Mumbai. Britainand Japanhave developed in this industry because the climate of these regions is moist duo to coastal areas.
Nevertheless, this factor has now lost its importance because the environment of the place of spinning can now artificially be made moist and damp through the modern techniques.
10. GOVERNMENT PATRONAGE:
In the establishment and development of cotton textile industry, important and decisive role is played by the government in the form of patronage. The government policies, tax structure, provision of loan policies should be encouraging and in favour of this industry.
11. OTHER FACTORS:
For the location and development of cotton textile industry, apart from the factors cited above, other factors also play their important role like managerial cost, managing staff, pace of total industrial development in the region, strong and wide Infra-Structural facilities, political decisions, stable and sustained growth and stable government.