Bureaucratic Model of Organization
Bureaucracy is a system of government by officials responsible only o their departmental chiefs. Bureaucracy is a composite word of bureau, and Greek word ‘Kratos’, meaning power. So bureaucracy means power of bureaucrats.
Karl Marx believed that bureaucracies are used by the dominant capitalist class to control the other, lower social classes. According to him, bureaucracies are characterized by:
(i) Strict hierarchy and discipline
(ii) Veneration of authority
(iii) Incompetent officials
(iv) Lack of initiative and Imagination
(v) Fear of responsibility
(vi) Process of self-aggrandizement
Max Weber who was German and a pioneer of modern sociology thought of bureaucracy as an Ideal organization structure. According to him, the bureaucracy is that type of organization that creates rationalization.
Max Weber has spec1fied the following characteristics of bureaucracy as in ideal organization.
(i) Specialization and Division of Labor
Specialization and division of labor result in fixed official duties. These duties are directed toward the accomplishment of enterprise goals.
(ii) Position Arranged in a Hierarchy
The organization of offices follows the principles of hierarchy. This bureaucratic characteristic forces control over every member in the structure. According to Herbert Simon, “hierarchy in the bureaucracy is in the natural order of things.
(iii) A system of Abstract Rules
Weber states that continuous organizations of official functions are bound by rules. He stales that a rational approach to organization requires a set of formal rules to ensure uniformity and coordination of effort. A welt-understood system of regulations also provides the continuity and stability Rules continue and persist, whereas persons frequently change.
(iv) Impersonal Relationship
Relationship between the members of organization should be non-emotional. It should be based on rationality and without hatred, passion, affection, or enthusiasm. Superiors must avoid emotional attachment to subordinates clients, and customers.
The most common objection about bureaucracy is that it has red tape. Red tape refers too many and superficial steps involved in getting things done.