Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.







Cotton, no doubt, is undisputed fiber for making textile for people. The importance of cotton can be assessed by the fact that cotton is included in every walk of human life. Textiles are needed at the time of birth and he requires textile at the time of death as coffin. No natural and man made fiber has the properties like cotton. These characteristics include strength, durability, wash ability, woven ability and multiplicity of use. Whatever the fibers used for human dress, have their peculiar characteristics; wool is warm, silk is smooth, rayon is cheap and nylon is strong but cotton is the single combination of all these characteristics. This is the reason that it commands supremacy over all natural and man made fibers. Cotton has become extremely importance after the industrial revolution because its world demand, due to tremendous increase in population, has increased. Cotton textiles comprise 50 per cent of all kinds of textiles.

Botanical name of cotton is ‘Gossypium Arboreum’ which was cultivated first in India, ‘Gossypium Herbaccum’ in Arabian countries and ‘Gossypium Harbadense was cultivated first in Peru while Gossypium Hirsutum’ was cultivated first in Mexico and Central America. The last two varieties of cotton are of paramount importance but Gossypium Hirsutum (also called up land American cotton) comprises 85 to 90 per cent of the cotton totally produced in the world. Different varieties of cotton are cultivated in different specific regions.

It is generally believed thatIndiais one of the countries where cotton was cultivated first. Cotton cultivation in India is proved 3000 BC. It was cultivated in ancient Mexico 5700 B.C while in Peru 2500 B.C. By the end of 50O A.D, the entire world was aware of the cotton and its use.


Where different verities of cotton were cultivated, nothing can be said in this behalf with certainty nevertheless, scientists do agree that cotton was being used in the valley of ancient Mexico 7000 years back. It is also agreed that the use of cotton in India is approximately 5000 old. Cotton was used also in China, Egypt and North and South America. Cotton although is cultivated in 91 countries but Iran, Egypt, Syria, Greece, Australia, Turkamanistan, Brazil, Turkey, Uzbekistan, India, Pakistan, United America and China are main.

Although many varieties of cotton are cultivated but following are common:


a. Long Staple Cotton with 3.5 to 6.5 centimeter long fiber. It is the best variety grown in Egypt,Sudan and Peru. Nevertheless, this variety constitutes only 10 per cent of the world production of cotton.


b. Middle Length Staple Cotton with 2.2 to 3.2 centimeter long fiber and this variety dominates the total world production of cotton. This variety is cultivated in India, Pakistan,Turkey, Uzbekistan, Brazil, Australia and Greece.


c. Short Staple Cotton with less than 2.2 centimeter long fiber. It is the most inferior quality of cotton.

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