Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.





The curly and soft hair obtained from the fleece of domestic sheep is generally called wool which is used as raw material in the textile industry. Wool fibers (hair) are strong, elastic and durable therefore, they can better hold the original shape of woolen garments as compared to other natural textile fiber. Moreover, wool commands the capacity of absorbing moisture and is light in weight. Use of wool as textile fiber is the ancient process of manufacturing, the importance of wool in the cold and mountainous region was realized long away. Wool, due to its long fiber, can easily be converted into yarn.

Although there are approximately 1000 varieties of wool out of which less than 100 varieties are used on commercial basis. Wool is sold in the international markets in the form of ‘Fleece’ obtained directly from wool sheep. The other variety of wool is ‘Skin Wool’ obtained from the skin of sheep slaughtered for mutton. Skin wool is preserved and sold by processing it in Greece. After reaching in the woolen factory, wool is washed to clean horn Greece, sand and other impurities. On third of original weight of wool, after cleaning, is reduced. Wool, after cleaning to conversion into textile, passes through a dozen stages.

For all the stages of preparation, skilled and experience labour is needed on which huge expenses incur. Most of the wool producing countries have thin population and wool market is also limited. This is the reason that the woolen textile industry, like that of cotton growing regions, does not concentrate and establish in the wool producing areas. The machines are gradually being introduced in the mountainous and other wool producing countries. Nevertheless, woolen textiles are woven in these regions still by human hands. Woolen textile industry has generally established in the advanced and industrial countries of the world. These countries produce 75 per cent of the total woolen textile.

With the passage of time, wool the species of Wool Sheep like Merinos and ‘rambouillets and Mutton Sheep like Linclns and Shrop shires have been raised. Many cross breed of the second variety of sheep have been raised. The dominant part of the wool produced in New Zealand,Australia and Uruguayis obtained from the cross breed sheep.


Wool is shaven off sheep reared for the purpose of wool, once a year either in spring or in the beginning of summer. In the hot climate countries wool is obtained from the body of sheep twice a year. The average of wool obtained from the best variety of Wool Sheep 4.5 or 10 lbs. per sheep. The wool obtained from the shoulders and the sides of sheep is better than obtained from other parts of the body. Apart from sheep, limited quantity of wool is obtained also from other animals like camel, alpaca,Angora and Kashmiri goat, Llama and the vicuna.

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