Q11. PROVIDE BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT PETROL.
WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT PETROL? EXPLAIN.
HIGHLIGHT THE NATURE, HISTORY, USE AND PROPERTIES OF MINERAL OIL.
Petrol is the most important source of energy in the modern world therefore; it is the king of all the sources of energy. Petrol means rock oil’ or ‘mineral oil’. Petrol is the combination of organic chemicals and plants which is composed of microbes, plants and the remains of giant animals which were buried under the surface due to some universe accident. As consequence of millions of tones of weight and enormous heat, after the millions of years, they were converted into crude oil. Petrol is found in the marine rocks under the gas but above water because it is heavier than gas but lighter than water. Petrol is the mixture of carbon and hydrogen.
Scientist can’t say with certainty that how petrol is formed nevertheless, they jointly opine that petrol is formed under the surface when the marine life, animals and plants are decomposed. As a result of continuous deposits of marine life, animals, microbes and the plants, sedimentary rocks are formed and the organisms embodied in them is converted into oil.
According to this theory, million years back when the life emerged, it increased enormously and still increasing. The layer of dead animals and plants continued to be thick and settled deeper by self weight in the bed of the ocean. When other layers continued to settle one over’ the other, the weight increased 1000 times and the heat also increased enormously. As consequence of this heat, the mud became hard and converted into lime stone while the organisms of dead life were converted into gas.
When petrol is formed, due to hot and light, it begins to travel towards the surface in the form of vapors and begins to deposit in the holes and cracks of the rocks because they stop it go up further. The rocks, in this way; arrest the oil and so the oil reserves are formed. A large quantity of rising petrol vapors is settled is spread on the surface (sea bed) which forms natural gas.
Crude oil is extracted from the oil well which is composed of many ingredients therefore; other chemical ingredients are separated during the refining process which includes kerosene oil, diesel and other lubricants.
Petrol is used in motor vehicles, trollers, ships, airplanes, sub-marines and as domestic fuel. Different chemicals substances are also obtained from petrol like Pentha, Paraffin Wax, Vaseline, Benzine and Asphalt etc.
The first oil well was dug in United States of America on August 27, 1859. Crude oil which is obtained in mud form is transferred to oil refineries through pipe lines, Crude oil leaks out as jet duo to enormous pressure of water gas. If the pressure is low, the suction pumps are used to suck the oil from ground.