Pakistan study notes for Matric, Intermediate, B.A, B.COM BSC, M.A, BCS. Free Pakistani Urdu educational school, colleges and University notes.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PAKISTAN

Q14. WRITE A DETAILED NOTE ON ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PAKISTAN.
OR
“IRRIGATION IS NOT JUST A BOON BUT ALSO A CURSE”. STATE THE VALIDITY OF THIS STATEMENT.
OR
HIGHLIGHT THE MERITS AND DEMERITS OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM.

ANSWER:
The economy of Pakistan is agrarian in nature because food supply, exports, national income, industry and employment all depend on agriculture for their betterment and development. In the light of this degree of dependence, if it is looked in deep we come to know that the climate of Pakistan is arid and semi-arid due to which irrigation assumes paramount importance. The dominant part of the total area cultivated depends on irrigation. In other words, agricultural development is the symptom of economic development and growth.

a. ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION:
On the basis of the condition of the basic principle of at integrated and efficient agricultural system, the following may be the advantages of irrigation:
Apart from the natural forests, on the banks of canals, near the water courses and near the villages, trees are planted due to the available irrigation system. The forests are the source of wood for construction and other uses. Forests, due to the system of irrigation, provide domestic fuel and save the energy for industrial development.

2. As the agricultural sector is deteriorating In Pakistan and agricultural production is decreasing, the rural population tending to migrate from villages to urban areas. Consequently, farms are abandoned and the pressure of population on rural economy is becoming enormous. Irrigation facilities can cheque this migration from rural to urban areas.

3. Irrigation system, against the niggard nature and increasing agricultural production, makes the country self sufficient in food.

4. Most of the industries are Agro-based industries which obtain their raw materials from agricultural sector like cotton, sugar Cane, vegetables, leather, tobacco etc. Efficient irrigation system can increase the agricultural output and, in turn, the industry can obtain sufficient and cheaper raw materials. Industrial development also depends on Irrigation. Industry, as compared to agricultural sector, can provide more employment opportunities therefore; the unemployment problems can also be curtailed.

5. The lands which due to any reason, have now gone out of cultivation, can be reclaimed through irrigation facilities. Both price and value of land can be increased and improved through irrigation.
6. Irrigation increases level of sub-soil water. This under ground water reservoir can be used for irrigation again as well for industrial purposes.

7. Irrigation system guarantees the simultaneous development both in agriculture and live stock because high yield fodder crops are sown on the basis of irrigation and so the production of meat, milk and leather can be increased.

8. The crops can’t be sown with certainty in the rain fed regions. One of the causes of agricultural uncertainty is also the uncertainty of irrigation. The risk of uncertainty, due to lack of water supply, can be eliminated through irrigation.

9. Some irrigation projects are so huge that not only irrigation water is supplied but they can also supply water to the urban areas. The regions where underground water level is very low, only the canals may be the source of irrigation and they are supplied water from irrigation projects.

10. Irrigation system, providing opportunities for intensive cultivation, can provide maximum employment to the agricultural labour.

11. If effective Water Management is exercised, efforts are made to increase the agricultural production and the lands are improved, we can get stable agricultural productivity and we can satisfy not only country’s food requirements but can also increased our export earnings through increase in the agricultural production.

12. It water supply, through better irrigation system, is guaranteed, the lower value products can be substituted by higher value products. For instance low grade cereals can be substituted by orchards, vegetable etc. Fruits and vegetables are highly demanded in the international markets. Good irrigation system, in this way, can curtail imports giving a boost to exports.

13. Canal and well water is sweet therefore, through irrigation system; fish keeping can also be adopted as a supplement agricultural activity. Fish keeping sector, as compared to agricultural sector, is more productive and profitable.

14. Irrigation increases rate of productivity of agricultural inputs like insecticides, pesticides, fertilizers, harve sters etc. which will ultimately increase the production in agricultural sector.

b. DISADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION:
Agricultural is not only the boon but it can also be the curse as under:

1. On keeping the irrigation system working all the times, high cost incurs.

2. The dominant part of irrigation water is used by plants and trees due to which soil goes dry therefore, again irrigation is required to face this problem.

3. Irrigation depends on supply of water rather on demand for water. In other words, it is not necessary that supply will always be equal to demand.

4. The canal irrigation system of Pakistan is one of the best systems in the world but it is creating the twin problem of water logging and salinity also.

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